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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the effectors of the autonomic nervous system pathway?
1. Smooth Muscle
2. Glands
3. Cardiac Muscle
4. Adipocytes
Where can you find the cell bodies of the ganglionic neurons?
autonomic ganglia
Where is the integrative center for autonomic activity located?
What is the effector of the somatic nervous system pathway?
skeletal muscle
Where are the cell bodies of the upper motor neurons located?
in the primary motor cortex of the cerebrum
How many neurons comprise the somatic nervous system pathway?
What neuron runs from the CNS to the autonomic ganglion?
Preganglionic neuron

(Autonomic preganglionic neurons are located between brain or spinal cord and some autonomic ganglion.)
Which spinal region LACKS autonomic preganglionic neurons?
The statement "there is always a peripheral synapse between the CNS and the effector organ" is __________.
true for both the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous systems
Sympathetic innervation originates in the thoracic and upper lumbar regions of the spinal cord. What part of the autonomic nervous system is represented by this statement?
Sympathetic Divison
Which of the following effectors is supplied by neurons that synapse in the collateral ganglia?

A) Adrenal Medulla
B) Intestine
C) Heart
D) Salivary Gland

(Abdominopelvic organs, except the adrenal medulla, are supplied with neurons that synapse in the collateral ganglia.)
_________________, except the adrenal medulla, is/are supplied with neurons that synapse in the collateral ganglia.
Abdominopelvic organs
Which of the following is NOT supplied by cervical sympathetic chain ganglia?

A) Spleen
B) Salivary Glands
C) Skin of the HEad
D) Heart

(The spleen is in the abdominal cavity, which is supplied by thoracic sympathetic chain ganglia.)
Sympathetic ganglionic neurons are found is all of these locations EXCEPT:

A) Collateral ganglia
B) Chain ganglia
C) Intramural ganglia
D) Suprarenal medullae
intramural ganglia
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the __________ horn of the __________ cord.
lateral; thoracolumbar
Which response is not part of sympathetic activation?

A) decreased muscle tone
B) decreased sensitivity to painful stimuli
C) increased heart rate
D) increased alertness
decreased muscle tone
In what part of the given pathway is norepinephrine secreted?
from the varicosities of the postganglionic fiber?

(Varicosities are the synaptic terminals of the adrenergic, postsynaptic neurons.)
Which of these neurotransmitters is NOT released at sympathetic neuroeffector junctions?

A) epinephrine
B) acetylcholine
C) nitric oxide
D) norepinephrine
Which of these is not an action of the sympathetic nervous system?

A) to constrict the pupils
B) to reduce skin circulation
C) to increase heart rate
D) to increase sweating
to constrict the pupils
Which of these substances is not a neurotransmitter at a sympathetic effector synapse?

A) gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)
B) norepinephrine
C) acetylcholine (ACh)
D) epinephrine
gamma amino butyric acid (GABA)
Which of the following target organs will have its parasympathetic regulation impacted by damage to the sacral region of the spinal cord?

A) Urinary Bladder
B) Stomach
C) Heart
D) Salivary glands
urinary bladder

(Pelvic organs are supplied by pelvic nerves arising from the sacral region of the spinal cord)
Where are the parasympathetic ganglionic synapses for the heart located?
within the heart itself

(The heart, along with many other effectors, has terminal ganglia within itself, rather than a separate ganglion.)
Parasympathetic outflow is ABSENT in which of these?

A) pelvic nerves
B) cervical ganglia
C) cranial nerve X
D) cranial nerve III
cervical ganglia
Which nerves contain the most parasympathetic preganglionic fibers?
vagus nerve
The parasympathetic nervous system releases __________ at ganglionic synapses, and _________ at its neuroeffector junctions.
acetylcholine; acetylcholine
Nicotine, the highly addictive plant toxin, activates nicotinic receptors in the peripheral nervous system. This means it will __________.
facilitate synaptic transmission at all autonomic ganglionic synapses
Which of these organs do NOT receive parasympathetic input?

A) lungs
B) heart
C) skin
D) stomach
At which of the following synapses is epinephrine secreted?

A) All parasympathetic ganglia
B) Terminal ganglia at parasympathetic synapses
C) Post-ganglionic neurons within sympathetic ganglia
of the adrenal medulla
D) All sympathetic ganglia
Postganglionic neurons within sympathetic ganglia of the adrenal medulla

(Only the postganglionic neurons of the adrenal medulla secrete epinephrine.)
Which of these is NOT a similarity between the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems?

A) Both use norepinephrine
B) Both affect heart rate
C) Both use acetylcholine
D) Both affect the pupils
Both use norepinephrine
The statement "it controls heart rate" is true ________________.
for both the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous system
Which of these organs do NOT receive dual innervation?

A) salivary gland
B) sweat glands
C) heart
D) eye
sweat glands