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160 Cards in this Set

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A collection of specialized cells and cell products that perform a specific, LIMITED function
-- having a limited function doesn't mean that cells can't
survive on their own (still have their own organelles,

- Structures with discrete structural and functional
- Tissues combine to form organs (Ex: heart or liver)
How many organ systems are there?
Organs can be grouped into 11 organ systems.
Basic Types of Tissues
1. Epithelial Tissue
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Neural Tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Cells that cover body or inner lining of body to protect it

- Covers exposed surfaces (Ex: Skin)
- Lines internal passageways (Ex: Digestive Tract)
- Forms Glands (Ex: Sweat Glands, Endocrine Glands)
Connective Tissue
*composed of many types of cells

- Fills internal spaces (Ex: Adipose)
- Supports other tissues (Ex: Bone)
- Transports materials (wastes, nutrients, etc.) (Ex: Blood)
- Stores energy reserves (Ex: Adipose)
Muscle Tissue
- specialized for contraction
- Three Different Types
Types of Muscle Tissue:
1. Skeletal Muscle (the only muscle type with voluntary

2. Cardiac (heart) Muscle

3. Smooth Muscle (walls of hollow organs)
Neural Tissue
-- Carries electrical signals from one part of the body to
another (either from body to brain or brain to body)

*Includes neurons and neuroglia that support them
Layers of cells covering internal or external surfaces
Internal Surfaces
Lines digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts
External Surfaces
Surface of skin
Structures that produce secretions

Two Types:
1. Exocrine Glands
2. Endocrine Glands
Exocrine Glands
release substances onto a surface

Ex: Release sweat onto skin; digestively release enzymes into stomach
Endocrine Glands
Release substances into interstitial fluid surrounding it

Ex: through capillaries
Functions of Epithelial Tissue:
1. Provide Physical Protection

2. Control Permeability

3. Provide Sensation

4. Produce Specialized Secretions
- glandular epithelium
Control Permeability
** A function of Epithelial Tissue

can be regulated and modified in response to stimuli

Ex: Hormones can affect transport across epithelia, physical labor forms calluses
Provide Sensation
** A function of Epithelial Tissue

- Contains sensory neurons
- Neuroepithelium
Epithelium specialized to perform a specific sensory function (smell, taste, sight, hearing, equilibrium)
Produce Specialized Secretions
** A function of Epithelial Tissue

Glandular Epithelium
5 Qualities of Epithelia:
1. Polarity

2. Cellularity

3. Attachment

4. Avascularity

5. Regeneration
**A quality of epithelia

Apical (top) and basal (bottom) surfaces

surface where the cell is exposed to an internal or external environment

1. Microvilli
2. Cilia
increase absorption or secretion

Ex: Digestive and Urinary tracts
Ciliated Epithelium

move fluid

Ex: Respiratory tract
Basal (basolateral)

Includes BOTH the base and the sides of the cell that comes into contact with its neighbors
Cellularity (intercellular connections)
**A quality of epithelia

* Support and communication

Epithelia are interconnected by cell junctions

Each of the cells are connected to each other by trans-membrane proteins
-- Provides support, strength and communication to the cell
**A quality of epithelia

Base of epithelia are attached to basement membrane, or basal lamina
**A quality of epithelia

lack blood vessels
**A quality of epithelia

Continuously replaced by stem cell divisions

(Since epithelial cells are always exposed to external environment, they are in constantly changing environments and die a lot. That is why epithelial cells can regenerate)
Intercellular Connections (Cellularity)
**A quality of epithelia

Support and Communication
1. CAM's (cell adhesion molecules)
2. Cell Junctions
Cell Adhesion Molecules

Trans-membrane proteins that bind to large areas of the plasma membrane to other cells or to extracellular materials
Cell Junctions
specialized areas of membrane that form bonds with other cells or extracellular material

3 Types (tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes)
Types of Cell Junctions:
1. Tight Junctions

2. Gap Junctions

3. Desmosomes
Tight Junctions:
Interlocking membrane proteins connect plasma membrane

- Very Tight Seal
-- Prevents passage of water and solutes between the
connected membranes
- In the lumen (passageway) of the digestive tract, function
to isolate enzymes, acids, and wastes
-- Keeps those items inside the lumen
Gap Junctions
Holds two cells together by channel proteins (junctional proteins, connexons)
-- Allow rapid communication
--- Allows movement of small molecules and ions
between cells
-- Coordinate contractions in heart muscle

* Not only do they connect cells together, but they have a hole of some sorts that allows cytoplasm from one cell to be connected to another (Allows for movement of materials between cells quickly)
very strong, can resist stretching, bending, twisting, compression

CAMs connect adjacent plasma membranes

Two Types of Desmosomes (Spot and Hemidesmomsomes)
Two Types of Desmosomes:
1. Spot desmosomes

2. Hemidesmosomes
Spot Desmosomes
small discs connected to intermediate filaments, ties cell together, stabilizes cel
"half of a spot desmosome"

attach cells to the basal lamina to anchor underlying tissue
Attachment (to the Basement Membrane)
**A quality of epithelia

Two Layers:
1. Clear Layer (lamina lucida)
2. Dense Layer (lamina densa)
Clear Layer
lamina lucida

layer closest to epithelia
-- Thin layer secreted by epithelia
-- Functions as barrier to proteins
Dense Layer
lamina densa

- Thick fibers produced by connective tissue
- Provides strength and acts as a filter for diffusion of
materials between adjacent tissue and epithelium
**A quality of epithelia

no blood vessels in epithelial tissue

Nutrients, gases, wastes need to diffuse to/from tissue
*Epithelial Maintenance and Repair

Epithelia are replaced by division of germinative cells (stem cells)
-- Near basement membrane
Germinative Cells
stem cells
Singular form
Plural form
Classes of Epithelia
1. Based on Shape
2. Based on Layers
Based on Shape
*a way to classify epithelia

1. Squamous epithelia (thin and flat)

2. Cuboidal epithelia (square shaped)

3. Columnar epithelia (tall, slender rectangles)
Based on Layers
*a way to classify epithelia

1. Simple epithelium (single layer of cells)

2. Stratified epithelium (several layers of cells)
"Special" Simple Squamous Epithelia
single layer of flat and thin epithelial cells

- Lones chambers and passageways that do not
communicate with outside world
- Includes:
1. Mesothelium
2. Endothelium
lines body cavities

Ex: Pleura, peritoneum, pericardium
mesothelium that surrounds abdominal cavity and lines its organs
mesothelium that surrounds the heart
lines inner surface of heart and blood vessels
Gladular Epithelia
*remember, glands are composed of epithelial cells

Two Types:
1. Endocrine Glands
2. Exocrine Glands
Endocrine Glands:
ductless glands

- Release hormones into interstitial fluid which then enters
the bloodstream (not secreted onto a surface)

Ex: Thyroid, pituitary (anterior and posterior) glands
Exocrine Glands
glands with ducts

- Produce secretions that are released onto epithelial
- Classified by mode and type of secretion
-- Three Modes
-- Three Types

Ex: Sweat from sweat glands, milk from mammary glands
Modes of Secretion by Exocrine Glands
1. Merocrine Secretion

2. Apocrine Secretion

3. Holocrine Secretion
Merocrine Secretion
*exocrine glands

* Most common mode of secretion

- Released by vesicles (exocytosis)

Ex: sweat glands, mucin (mixes with water to form mucus)
Apocrine Secretion
*exocrine glands

Release of substances through shedding of the apical surface

- Released by shedding cytoplasm
- Apical part of cell is lost (along with the cytoplasm and
Holocrine Secretion
*exocrine glands

Cells fill up with materials it wants to secrete and then bursts

- Released by cells bursting, killing gland cell
-- Entire cell fills with secretory products before bursting
- Gland cells replaced by stem cells

Ex: sebaceous glands found at hair follicles

* These cells actually die and need to be replenished (hence the stem cells)
Mode that Mammary Glands Secrete Milk
Release milk by combination of apocrine and merocrine secretions
Types of Exocrine Secretions:
1. Serous Glands

2. Mucous Glands

3. Mixed Exocrine Glands
Serous Glands
watery secretions

Ex: saliva by parotid salivary glands
Mucous Glands
Secrete mucins (mixes with water to form mucus)

Ex: Mucins from sublingual salivary glands and submucosal glands of small intestine
Mixed Endocrine Glands
both serous and mucous

Ex: Submandibular (salivary) glands
Two Main Exocrine Groups
1. Unicellular Glands

2. Multicellular Glands
Unicellular Glands
*exocrine glands

Mucous (goblet) cells are the ONLY unicellular exocrine glands (most common type)
-- Scattered among epithelia

Ex: in intestinal lining (secretes mucous onto lining)
Multicellular glands
*Exocrine glands

Secretory sheet where gland cells can form epithelium that releases product into an inner compartment

Ex: Mucin-secreting cells in stomach, salivary glands
Characteristics to Describe Multicellular Exocrine Glands:
1. Structure of the Duct

2. Shape of Secretory Portion of the Gland

3. Relationship Between Ducts and Glandular Areas
Structure of the Duct
*A Characteristic to Describe Multicellular Exocrine Glands

1. Simple (undivided) - Single duct

2. Compound (divided) - divides one or more times on its
way to the gland cells
Shape of Secretory Portion of the Gland:
*A Characteristic to Describe Multicellular Exocrine Glands

1. Tubular:
-- Tube shaped
-- can be straight or coiled

2. Alveolar or acinar
-- blind pockets

3. Tubuloalveolar or tubuloacinar
-- Both tubes AND pockets
tube shaped
Alveolar (acinar)
blind pockets
Tubuloalveolar (tubuloavinar)
both tubes AND pockets
Relationship Between Ducts and Glandular Areas
*A Characteristic to Describe Multicellular Exocrine Glands

-- Several secretory areas sharing one duct
Basic Characteristics of Connective Tissue
1. Specialized Cells (more than 1 cell type)

2. Solid Extracellular Protein Fiber (for support)

3. Fluid Extracellular Ground Substance
Ground Substance
besides filling the spaces between cells, the ground substance also slows pathogen movement
the extracellular components of connective tissue
-- Fibers and Ground Substance

- The majority of connective tissue volume
- Determines specialized function
Functions of Connective Tissue
1. Establishing a structural framework for the body

2. Transporting fluids and dissolved materials (Ex: lymph)

3. Protecting Delicate Organs (Ex: Adipose tissue)

4. Supporting, Surrounding, and Interconnecting other
types of tissue (Ex: Regular and Irregular Disconnective

5. Storing Energy Reserves (especially in the form of

6. Defending the body from invading microorganisms (Ex:
Three Categories of Connective Tissue:
1. Connective Tissue Proper

2. Fluid Connective Tissues

3. Supporting Connective Tissues
Connective Tissue Proper
*A category of connective tissue

Functions to connect and protect

More rigid and used to bind things together

Ex: Tendons and adipose
Fluid Connective Tissues
*A category of connective tissue

Function in transportation

Ex: Blood and Lymph
-- Transport materials to cells and wastes away from
Supporting Connective Tissues
*A category of connective tissue

Provides structural strength

Ex: Cartilage and Bone
Connective Tissue Proper Cell Populations:
1. Fibroblasts
2. Fibrocytes
3. Adipocytes
4. Mesenchymal Cells
5. Macrophages
6. Mast Cells
7. Lymphocytes
8. Melanocytes
The most abundant cell type

found in all connective tissue proper

secrete proteins and hyaluronan (cellular cement)
cellular cement secreted by fibroblasts

holds things together and prevents cells from moving around too much
the second most abundant cell type
-- Develop from Fibroblasts!!!!

Found in all connective tissue proper
Maintain the fibers of connective tissue proper
Adipose Cells (Fat cells)

Each cell stores a single, large fat droplet
(droplet grows/shrinks)

Functions as energy reserve and cushions tissues/organs
Mesenchymal Cells
Found in many connective tissue

Stem cells that respond to injury or infection
-- Differentiate into fibroblasts, macrophages, etc.
--- Produce other types of tissue cells

Derived from embryonic mesenchyme
Large, amoeba-like cells of the immune system

Functions to engulf pathogens and damaged cells
-- (undergo phagocytosis to swallow up diseases to break
them down and keep them from spreading)

Two Classes:
1. Fixed Macrophages
2. Free Macrophages
Fixed Macrophages
Stay in tissue

Frontline defense, reinforced by free macrophages and other cells
Free Macrophages
migrate through tissue
Mast Cells
Stimulate inflammation after injury or infection

- Release histamine and heparin
dilates blood vessels
leukocytes (WBC's) that also contain histamine and heparin
White blood cells
specialized immune cells in lymphatic (lymphoid) system

Ex: Lymphocytes may develop into plasma cells (plasmocytes) that produce antibodies
-- Vaccines stimulate some lymphocytes to become
plasma cells to produce antibodies

* A subclass of leukocytes (WBC's) and are basically specialized leukocytes
plasma cells that produce antibodies
Synthesize and store the brown pigment melanin

-- Located in eye and dermis of skin
Embryonic connective tissue
Embryonic stem cells

- First connective tissue to appear in embryos
- Gives rise to all other connective tissues

*Not found in adults!
-- though many adult connective tissues do have
mesenchymal stem cells for tissue repair
Adipose Tissue
Contains many adipocytes (fat cells)

- Incapable of dividing!!!!
-- Shrinks when nutrients are scarce (do NOT die)
-- Weight lost at area can be regained

- More produced by mesenchymal cells if needed by dies

Two Types:
1. White Fat
2. Brown Fat

*surrounds organs and can store energy
* can't divide or go through mitosis!
Types of Adipose Tissue
1. White Fat

2. Brown Fat
White Fat
* most common

1. Stores fat
2. Absorbs shocks
3. Slows heat loss (insulation)
Brown Fat
widespread in the fetus and infant (only small amounts in adults

- more vascularized
- Adipocytes have many mitochondria
- When stimulated by nervous system, fat breakdown
speeds up --> releases energy
- Energy is absorbed by surrounding tissues --> heats body/blood
Fluid Connective Tissues
*Blood and Lymph

Has a watery matrix of dissolved proteins

Carries specific cell types (formed elements)
Formed Elements of Blood:
1. Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)

2. White Blood Cells (leukocytes)

3. Platelets
Red Blood Cells

Responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

Make up 50% blood volume and give blood its color
White Blood Cells

** do not confuse leukocytes with lymphocytes (which is a
special TYPE of leukocyte)

Help defend the body from infection and disease

(Monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophil, neutrophil, basophil)
Are actually not cells but fragments of cells

Cause coagulation (blood clots)
-- Prevents blood loss and decreased blood pressure

Membrane-enclosed packets of cytoplasm --> blood clotting
Fluid Elements of Connective Tissues
Extracellular Fluid Includes:

1. Plasma

2. Interstitial Fluid

3. Lymph
Interstitial Fluid
a type of extracellular fluid
Fluid that is created when blood pushes fluid out of capillaries

Extracellular fluid collected from interstitial space (leftover fluid from the capillaries)

- Monitored by immune system
- Transported by lymphatic (lymphoid system)
- Returned to venous system (cardiovascular system)
Supporting Connective Tissues:
1. Cartilage

2. Bone

support soft tissues and body weight
Gel-type ground substance

Used for shock absorption and protection

- produced by chondrocytes
- avascular
Bone (osseous tissue)
Calcified (made rigid by calcium salts, minerals)

Used for weight support

Maintained by osteocytes

- Strong (calcified calcium salt deposits)
- Resists shattering (flexible collagen fibers)
Produce cartilage

Produce antiagiogenesis factor (prevents blood vessel formation --> slow repair of damaged cartilage)
- Physical Barriers
-- Prevents foreign material from entering and nutrients
from leaving
- Line or cover portions of the body

Consist of:
1. An epithelium
2. Supported by connective tissue
Four Types of Membranes
1. Mucous Membranes
2. Serous Membranes
3. Cutaneous Membranes
4. Synovial Membranes

**Mucous, serous, and cutaneous membranes are al
epithelial tissue
Mucous Membranes (Mucosae)
- Line passageways that have external connections
- In digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
- Epithelial surfaces must be moist
-- To reduce friction
-- To facilitate absorption and excretion
- Lamina propria supports it

Have a layer of mucous that protects them from the external environment (reduces friction, facilitates absorption and excretion)
Lamina Propria
connective tissue component that supports the superior epithelial tissues
Serous Membranes
- Line cavities not open/exposed to the outside
- Are thin but strong
- Have fluid called transudate
- Two Layers (with fluid in between)
1. Parietal
2. Visceral

Ex: pericardium, etc.
a fluid in serous membranes that is used to reduce friction and lubricate the membrane
Parietal layer
layer of serous membranes that cover the body cavity
Visceral Layer (serosa)
layer of serous membranes that cover the organs
Types of Serous Membranes
1. Pleura

2. Peritoneum

3. Pericardium
*a type of serous membrane

Parietal: Lines pleural cavities
Visceral: Covers lungs
*a type of serous membrane

Parietal: Lines peritoneal cavity
Visceral: Covers abdominal organs
*a type of serous membrane

Parietal: Lines pericardial cavity
Visceral: Covers heart
Cutaneous Membranes
- found on the surface of the body

- Thick
- "Waterproof"
- Dry
Synovial Membranes
line moving, articulating joint cavities

Synoviocytes line cavity, produce synovial fluid (lubricant)

- Protect the ends of bones
- Lack a true epithelium
sparsely dispersed cells that line cavities and produce lubricating synovial fluid
Functions of Connective Tissues:
1. Provide Strength and Stability
2. Maintain positions of internal organs
3. Provide routes for blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and
different layers of connective tissue

singular: fascia

- The body's framework of connective tissue
- Layers and wrappings that support or surround organs
Three Types of Fasciae
1. Superficial Fascia (hypodermis)

2. Deep Fascia

3. Subserous Fascia
Superficial Fascia

provides insulation and padding
Deep Fascia
resist multidirectional forces

bound to capsules around most organs, tendons, and ligaments
Subserous Fascia
protects body cavity lining when muscles/muscular organs move
Muscle Tissue
- Specialized for Contraction
- Produces all body Movement

3 Types (Skeletal, cardiac, smooth)
Types of Muscle Tissue:
1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue

2. Cardiac Muscle Tissue

3. Smooth Muscle Tissue
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
large body muscles responsible for VOLUNTARY movement
Cardiac muscle Tissue
Found only in the heart

Smooth Muscle Tissue
Found in walls of hollow, contracting organs (blood vessels, urinary bladder, respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts)

Classifications of Muscle Cells:
1. Striated vs. Non-striated

2. Single Nucleus vs. Multinucleate

3. Voluntary vs. Involuntary
muscle cells with a banded appearance
not banded; smooth muscle
multiple nuclei

Ex: Skeletal Muscle
conscious control
automatic control
Skeletal Muscle Cells
- Long and Thin
- Striated
- Multi-nucleated

- Usually called muscle fibers
- Do NOT divide
-- but new fibers are produced by stem cells (myosatellite
cells) --> Low Repair Ability
Myosatellite Cells
repair damaged muscle cells, but do NOT replace those fibers
Cardiac Muscle Cells
- Striated
- Single Nucleus
- Cardiocytes

Form branching networks connected at intercalated discs (contains gap junctions)
Smooth Muscle Cells
- Non-striated
- Small and tapered
- CAN divide and regenerate
Neural Tissue (nervous/nerve tissue)
- Specialized for conducting electrical impulses
-- Sends electrical signals to other cells through a cell
process called an axon
- Rapidly senses internal or external environment
- Processes information and controls responses
- Neural tissue is concentrated in the CNS
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord
Types of Neural Cells:
1. Neurons

2. Neuroglia
nerve cells

Perform electrical communication
-- Send and receive impulses/commands
supporting cells

Repair and supply nutrients to neurons
- Clean up to keep environment healthy and nice