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6 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Sub-laryngeal tract: airstream process

- Diaphragm controls the lungs.

- Air travels up from lungs (pulmonic egressive.)

- No language uses pulmonic egressive speech.

- There is glottalic egressive/ingressive, velaric ingressive speech.

Laryngeal tract: phonation process

- Trachea connects lungs to mouth.

- Thyroid sits in front of cricoid cartilage, 2 aryntenoid cartilages on top.

- Tissue above thickens into vocal folds, controlled by vocalis muscle.

- Vestibular folds sit above vocal folds.

- Space between vocal folds is the glottis.

Supra-laryngeal tract: oro-nasal process

Active articulators: bottom lip, tongue.

Passive articulators: upper lip, teeth, alveolar ridge, post-alveolar region, palate, velum, uvula, pharyngeal walls.

- Actives move towards passives to shape airflow.


- Glottalic ingressive stop.

- Change in air pressure due to the movement of larynx.

- Always voiced.


- Glottalic ingressive stop.

- Change in air pressure due to movement of larynx.

1: Simultaneous closure at larynx & somewhere in oral cavity.

2: Larynx raised.

3: Release of oral closure.

4: Release of glottal closure.


- Velaric ingressive stop.

- Labial, dental, alveolar, palato-alveolar, lateral clicks possible.

1: Closure of tongue body against velum or uvula.

2: Second closure made further forward in oral cavity.

3: Tongue body slid backward without breaking seal.

4: Forward closure released.