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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


when more than one articulator is active.

ex. using lungs and intercoastal muscles at the same time


neighbouring sounds becoming more alike in their phonetic properties


neighbouring sounds becoming more different in their phonetic properties


sound drop; occurs in fast speech


sound adds; usually for easier translation between sounds

vowel reduction

when vowel is NOT stressed, may tend to be articualted more central position - use schwa


sounds change position w/in a word

complementary distribution

when 2 sounds occur in non - overlapping, mutually exclusive environments. Usually represent 2 or more allophones. found systematically in distinct environments


pronounceable, can be counted, matter in slips of the tongue, depend on syllable structure, & relevant for rhyme and similar type of repetitive patterning, identifable structuces


correspondence of sound between the ending of 2 or more words or meterical lines that syllables involved carry identical vowel sounds & if present have identical final consonants


beginning of adjacent or closely connected words with the same sound or letter

Internal Structure of syllable

Nucleus, Onset, Coda


backbone of every syllable - ALWAYS required usually vowels or diphthong


consonants that precedes the nucleus - does not have to exist - must be maximized by sonoranity


1 or more consonants following the nucleus - NOT required or always allowed

Sonority Requirement

core syllables, sonority rises before the nucleus and declines after the nucleus

Binarity Requirement

core syllables, each constituent can be at most binary. No more than 2 consonants in an onset or coda.

ex. syllable: (onset +) rhyme

rhyme: nucleus (+ coda)

Sonority scale

0 - obstruent

1 - nasal

2 - liquid

3 - glide

4 - vowel


the smallest unit in the phonological hierarchy


resembles a consonant


singable; includes vowels, glide, liquids, and fricatives


act as a syllable nuclei; includes vowels, syllabic liquids & nasals


produced with free or nearly free airflow through centre of the oral cavity; includes vowels, glides, liquids, and frictive


produced with a lowered velum, the nasal cavity open; includes nasals and nasal stops




produced with air escaping along the side of the tongue; includes ALL and only varieties of /l/


produced with vibration of vocal folds


lip or lips are active articulators


tongue tip or blade is an active articulator


tongue body is an active articulator


lips rounded or not


body of tongue raised


body of tongue lowered


tongue behind the palatal area


vowel is tense

if vowel is not tense it means its a lax vowel.


articulated in front of alveopalatal region


noisy coronal fricatives & affricates

2 main roles for phonological features

1. to express the articulatory & acoustic components of phones

2. to express the properties that natural classes of sounds share with each other


how phonemes and allophones are related


auditory property of a sound that enables us to place it on a scale that ranges from low to high


when words are made distinct through a pitch difference alone


when its meaningfulness relates to larger linguistic units - larger than just single words


duration of sounds varies in pronouciation; in some languages length can be significant in distinguishing words


the intensity of a sound, like pitch and length, can be measured in phonetic analysis.


realized phonetically in configurations of loudness, duration, and/or pitch.


a class of phonteically similar sounds that do not contrast with each other


the sounds that make up a phonemes; usually in completmentary distributions or phonetically similar