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29 Cards in this Set

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The major social institution for transmitting knowledge and skills, as well as teaching cultural norms and values.

Formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers.
Structural-Functional Theory
Highlights major functions of schooling, including socialization, cultural innovation, social integration, and the placement of people in the social hierarchy.

Symbolic-Interaction Theory

Helps us understand that stereotypes can have important consequences for how people act. If students think they are academically superior, they are likely to perform better; students who think they are inferior are likely to perform less well.

Social-Conflict Theory

Links schooling to the hierarchy involving class, race, and gender.


Assigning students to different types of educational programs.

Problems in Schools

-Violence permeates many schools, especially in poor neighborhoods.

-The bureaucratic character of schools fosters high dropout rates and student passivity.

Functional Illiteracy

A lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living.

School Choice Movement

Seeks to make schools more accountable to the public. Innovative school choice options include magnet schools, schooling for profit, and charter schools.

Home Schooling

-The original pioneers of home schooling did not believe in public education because they wanted to give their children a strongly religious upbringing.

-Home schooling advocates today point to the poor performance of public schools.

Schooling People w/ Disabilities

-Children with mental or physical disabilities have historically been schooled in special classes.
Adult Education
-Adults represent a growing proportion of students in the United States.

The Teacher Shortage

-About 400,000 teaching vacancies exist in the United States each year due to low salaries, frustration, retirement, and rising enrollments and class size.

A social issue because personal well-being depends on society's level of technology and its distribution of resources. A society's culture shapes definitions of health.


A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.
The social institution that focuses on fighting disease and improving health.

Health in the United States

-More than 80% of U.S. children born today will live to at least the age of 65.

Social Epidemiology

The study of how health and disease are distributed throughout a society's population.
Eating Disorder
An intense form of dieting or other unhealthy method of weight control driven by the desire to be very thin.


Assisting in the death of a person suffering from an incurable disease; also known as mercy killing.
Structural-Functional Theory

Considers illness to be dysfunctional because it reduces people's abilities to perform their roles (Talcott Parsons).

Symbolic-Interaction Theory

Investigates the meanings that people attach to health illness, and medical care. These meanings are socially constructed by people in everyday interaction.
Social-Conflict Theory

Focuses on the unequal distribution of health and medical care. Marxist theory criticizes the U.S. medical establishment for its overreliance on drugs and surgery, the dominance of the profit motive.

Feminist Theory
Criticizes the medical establishment for "scientific" statements and policies that effectively allow men to dominate women.

Holistic Medicine

An approach to health care that emphasizes prevention of illness and takes into account a person's entire physical and social environment.

Socialized Medicine

A medical care system in which the government owns and operates most medical facilities and employs most physicians.
Direct-Fee System

A medical care system in which patients pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals .
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)

An organization that provides comprehensive medical care to subscribers for a fixed fee.

Sick Role
Patterns of behavior defined as appropriate for people who are ill.