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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the part of the human brain that takes two full decades to develop?
Cerebral cortex
What is the fatty neural cover in the brain?
The myelin sheath
What is the region of the brain responsible for reasoning and thinking through our actions?
The frontal lobes
What is the process of making billions of connections between neurons?
The frontal lobes are vital for what?
Mastering our physical skills.
What would happen if an adult damaged their frontal lobes?
They may have trouble with regulating physical responses, analyzing problems, to inhibiting their actions.
Mass-to-specific principle
The steady progression from clumsy to sure. The motor skill milestones.
Gross Motor Skills
Large muscle movements
Fine Motor Skills
small, coordinated movements
Give examples of gross motor skills
running, climbing, hopping
Give examples of fine motor skills
drawings faces and writing your name
What can cause variations between children's development in motor skills?
Gender: Boys are typically better than girls at gross motor skills, and girls better than boys at fine motor skills
Genetics: Differing biologically based timetables that program unfolding motor skills
How does lack of food create a threat to growth and motor skills?
It compromises the bones, muscles, and brain. When children are hungry they are often too tired to move. And play does much more than exercise our bodies. Play can help prime neural development and is vital in promoting social cognition.
What is social cognition?
Social cognition refers to any skill related to managing and decoding people's emotions, and getting along with other human beings.
Preoperational and Concrete operational stages
Preoperational thinking
The ability to step back from immediate perceptions
Concrete operational thinking
The ability to reason about the world in a more logical, adult-like way
When are children in the Preoperational Stage?
When are children in the Concrete operational stage?
Name Piaget's stages
Sensorimotor, Preoperations, Concrete operations, and Formal operations.
Explain the Sensorimotor stage.
Occurs in infants 0-2. Begins with the infants understanding the basics of physical reality and ends with the development of language.
Explain the Preoperations stage.
Occurs in children 2-7. Children's perceptions are captured by their immediate appearances. What they see is what is real. Animism, amount of liquid changing when put in a taller glass.
Explain the Concrete operations stage.
Occurs in children 8-12. Children have a realistic understanding of the world, and can reason conceptually about concrete objects, they cannot think abstractly in a scientific way.
Explain the Formal Operations stage.
This occurs in ages 12+. Reasoning is at a high. Fully adult.
Conservation according to Piaget.
Refers to our knowledge that the amount of a given substance remains the same even if it changes in its shape or form.
Piaget believes young children can't conserve, because they don't grasp a concept called reversibility. What is that?
The idea that an operation (or procedure) can be repeated in the opposite direction.
Young children interpret things according to what first hits their eye
When a children reaches concrete operations they are able to step back and see the whole picture
Class inclusion
The knowledge that a general category can encompass subordinate elements.
Ex: Putting 20 Skittles on a table and only 5 gummy bears. Asking the child "Would you like the Skittles or the candy?"
Not realizing that the word "candy" includes both the Skittles and gummy bears, the child will normall answers "Skittles" due to the large number associated with it.
The child's capacity to put objects in order according to some principal, for example, size.
The difficulty young children have between sorting out what is really alive.
Young children believe that everything in nature was made my human beings.
Ex: "Mommy, make the rain stop."
Identity constancy
Children don;t understand the concept that people are still their essential selves even when they visually change.
Ex: Putting on a mask
The inability to understand that other people have different points of view.
theorized that learning takes place within the zone of proximal development
Zone of proximal development
Difference between what the child can do by himself and his level of "potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers".
Teaching to a child's proximal development, then backing away when the child no longer needs support
Working Memory (Page 157)
Where the "cognitive action" takes place. Where we keep information either to save or discard it.
In adults, what is the typical "bin size" of working memory?
7 chunks
Executive Functions
any skill related to managing our memory, controlling our cognitions, planning our behavior, and inhibiting our responses. (Depend on frontal lobes)
Inner Speech
Repeating thoughts aloud
The word sounds of language. Has trouble forming sounds.
Uses few meaning units per sentence
Syntax (grammar)
Makes mistakes in applying rules for forming sentences
Has problems understanding word meanings
Puts irregular pasts and plurals into regular forms
Applies verbal labels too broadly/narrowly
Externalizing tendencies
Have problems with lashing out. They act aggressively.
Internalizing tendencies
Extreme anxiety. Timid, self-conscious, frightened, and depressed
Leaned helplessness
"I'm going to fail, so why try?"
Harter's Five Domains
Academics, Physical skills, Relationships, Physical appearance, Conduct
Motivated by the desire to help apart from getting external rewards
Prosocial Behavior
acts of self-sacrifice and caring
Directly feeling another's emotion
What we feel for another being.
Pointing out the ethical issue when scolding your children
Instrumental aggression
hurtful behavior that is initiated to achieve a goal
Reactive aggression
Occurs in response to being hurt
Relational aggression
acts designed to hurt our relationships
Hostile attributional bias
Sees an accident as a direct and purposeful attempt to anger them
Possibilities of gender segregated play?
Gender specific toys, gender schema theory (once children understand their category they selectively attend to activities of their own sex), genetics (boys tend to be rougher and girls more timid)
Parenting Styles
Authoritative parents, Authoritarian parents, Permissive parents, Rejecting-neglecting parents.
Authoritative Parents
Rank high on both nurturing and setting limits. They give their children reasonable freedom, but also can set limits. For example, there is a set time, but for some special occasions can be pushed back a little later.
Authoritarian Parents
Rigid and inflexible. The parent's word is law. Filled with a lot of love, but there is no room for bending rules. Often seen as rigid and cold.
Permissive Parents
Provide total freedom and unconditional love. For example, often no bed time set,
Rejecting-neglecting Parents
Low on structure and low on love. Children often left to fend for themselves.
What are some ways that child-rearing may be different than standard child rearing structures?
The parents may have differing ideas on how to raise children,
Resilient children
Confront terrible conditions and end up becoming successful
Types of child maltreatment
Physical abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse.
What is the WISC?
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and it is the current standard intelligence test.
The Flynn effect
The steady worldwide rise in IQ scores
IQ tests measure what type of intelligence?
Analytic intelligence
What two types of intelligence do IQ tests not measure?
Creative intelligence and practical intelligence
What is Analytic Intelligence?
Academic-type problems with a defined solution
What is Creative intelligence?
The ability to "think outside the box" or formulate problems in new ways
What is Practical intelligence
Common sense or street smarts
Multiple Intelligence Theory
Verbal, mathematical, interpersonal intelligence (understanding other people), spatial intelligence (grasp where objects are arranged in a space), intrapersonal intelligence (Understanding oneself), musical intelligence, kinesthetic intelligence (ability to use the body well), naturalist intelligence (ability to deal with plants/animals well), existential (spiritual) intelligence.
Intrinsic motivation
self-generated actions
Extrinsic motivation
Activities that we undertake in order to get external reinforcers (Praise, pay, good grade)