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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Employment Relationship

"Economic transaction", connection between employers and employees through which individuals sell their labor

Egoist (ER perspective)

Employees and employers are self interested and rational actors, labor market solves all problems

Unitarist (ER perspective)

"Efficiency", markets are imperfect, ER is a long-term partnership, seek mutual gain, conflict is avoidable (HR is based off of this)

Pluralist (ER perspective)

"Efficiency, equity and voice", employees are economically AND psychologically motivated, conflict is inherent (Unions and collective bargaining)

Critical (ER perspective)

Conflict is not just due to non-overlapping interests (HR is manipulative), workers would rise up


Finding, building and maintaining human capital

Human Capital

Stock of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics a person has that gives their labor economic value (KSAO's)

Examples of HR Functional Areas

Strategy, Recruitment, Training, Development, Selection, Compliance, Compensation, Employee Relations, etc.

Why is HR important?

Motivate and reward employees, add value to the organization

Problems with Poor HR

Lawsuits, high turnover, low productivity, dissatisfied employees, etc.

HR Assistant Duties

Record keeping, paper pushing, admin.

HR Specialist Duties

Recruiters, trainers, job analyst, labor relations consultant, compensation analyst

HR Manager Duties

Coordinate HR activities, oversee specialists, work alone

HR Generalist Duties

Could function as manager, but does everything, HR Director/VP of HR

Small and Large HR Organizations

Small- HR Generalist or nothing, Large- 1 HRM per 100 employees


Diversity increasing, legal compliance may be more difficult, foreign workers

Working Families

More women in the workforce, more diverse families, want more flexibility, push for increases in leave

Workforce Aging

Baby boomers aging, loner life expectancy, people will work longer, different KSAO's, no human capital in the middle ages


Companies becoming international, manage international employees, global labor market/customer segments, countries have different norms

Economic Recession Effects

Slack labor market, more workers than jobs, high unemployment, less room for HR practicies

Strategic HRM

Adds value to the company, organization has a broad strategy and each dept. must support the broader strategy with its functional strategy, aligning practices with strategic goals, evidence- based HR

Job Analysis

The process of studying jobs to gather, analyze, and report info about job responsibilities and requirements, must be re-done as jobs change

Job Description

List of tasks essential to the job, includes: job title, Fair Labor Standard Act Status (except or not for overtime), job summary, essential functions and performance standards, date and revision info, disclaimer

Job Specification

List of KSAO's required to do the essential tasks

Taylorism (Job Specification)

Standardized, smallest components, assembly line

Hawthorne Studies (Job Specification)

Tested work environment to productivity

Step 1 Conducting a Job Analysis

Determine what kind of data to collect

Step 2 Conducting a Job Analysis

Determine who/where to collect data from

Step 3 Conducting a Job Analysis

Determine data collection method

Step 4 Conducting a Job Analysis

Collect and analyze data

8 Things to Collect for a Job Analysis

Tasks, scope (supervision received/provided), tools/equipment, context (schedule, physical environment), social, decision-making authority, KSAO's, and performance, most critical: tasks and KSAO's

Types of Sources of Info for a Job Analysis

Job incumbents (person currently in the job), supervisor/manager, former job holders, subject matter experts, O*Net

Data Collection Methods

Observation, work sample, work diary, interview, surveys, other (perform job yourself, background records)

How is a Task Essential to the Job?

The job wouldn't exist without it, there is a lot of time spent on it, it is done often

Performance Standards

Tells you the extent to what you're doing, should specify how much, how accurately, etc., useful for performance appraisals

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Discrimination- covers all schools and government, race religion, color, sex, national origin. Covers hiring, firing, and job opportunities

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

Agency of 5 members of the federal government created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, may or may not file lawsuit

Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA)

Discriminating against people aged 40+ is illegal, prohibited mandatory retirement at 65 (few exceptions: drivers)

Equal Pay Act of 1963

Equal jobs = equal pay, 30% "gender pay gap"

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Disabled (physical or mental) impairment that limits one or more major life activity (EEOC guidelines)

Title I of Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Requires employers to make "reasonable accommodations", "undue hardship", employee must still be qualified and ab;e to perform essential job duties, alternatives: shorter shifts, different job assignments

Step 1 Discrimination Lawsuits

Employee shows proof they've been discriminated. Adverse impact: unintentional Disparate impact: intentional. They then establish a prima facie case (only for businesses with 15 employees or more)

Step 1A: Discrimination Lawsuits

4/5th rule- minority selection rate must not be less than 80% of highest selection rate by group (adverse impact)

Step 1B: Discrimination Lawsuits

Standard Deviation Rule- spread around an average, hiring rates should be within 2 S.D.'s

Step 1C: Discrimination Lawsuits

Restricted policy- rules for hiring and firing, exclude most members of a class

Step 1D: Discrimination Lawsuits

Population comparisons- compare proportion of protected group members in the business with that of the labor market

Step 1E: Discrimination Lawsuits

McDonnell-Douglas Test- have proof of discrimination and a part of a protected class (disparate impact)

Step 2: Discrimination Lawsuits

Shift of Proof- after a prima facie case, the burden shifts to the employer

2 Primary Defenses of a Prima Facie

BFOQ (unable to perform role, tough to prove) & business necessity defense (created by courts, mostly adverse)

Step 1 Enforcement of EEOC

Employee files complaint with EEOC

Step 2 Enforcement of EEOC

EEOC informs employer

Step 3 Enforcement of EEOC

Investigation- employer issues formal statement, whole thing takes about 6 months

Step 4 Enforcement of EEOC

Dismissal or a reasonable cause

Step 5 Enforcement of EEOC


Step 6A Enforcement of EEOC

If reasonable cause- EEOC may or may not pursue the case

Step 6B Enforcement of EEOC

If not- individual may pursue the case, "right to sue" letter within 90 days

When EEOC sues

They look at number of people affected, money involved, frequency of charges against employer, the type of charge

Sexual Harassment

Made legal by the Title VII (Civil Rights), 3 types: Submission is a term or condition, submission is considered in employee decisions, hostile work environment

Sexual Harassment: Illegal

a trade whether you lose or gain, hostile environment by employees, hostile environment by non-employees (customers)

Affirmative Defense (If Employer Gets Sued)

Employer must show it took "reasonable care" to prevent and correct behavior, and must show the claimant unreasonably failed to take advantage of employer's policies, both must be true

If Employer Loses Lawsuit

Back pay, compensation damages, hiring restraintment


Doctrine stating employees can quit/be fired at anytime, with or without reason, exceptions: an actual contract with the company, exceptions in certain states

Public Policy (Employment-At-Will)

Refusing to violate state law, reporting a violation of the law, worker's comp

Implied Contracts (Employment-At-Will)

Documentation outlines firing, burden of proof on employee

Good Faith Covenant (Employment-At-Will)

Employers must have "good faith" with employees (can't fire someone before they receive commission)

Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA)

40 hour work week exempt (not eligible) vs. non-exempt (eligible), salaried >$47,476/yr. Covers federal minimum wage, child labor standards

2 Levels of Strategy

Corporate: Portfolio of business (geography), concentration, diversification, vertical integration, expansion Competitive: Beat competition, Porter's Generic Strategies- 1. Cost leadership: lowest price/production cost (cheap food) 2. Differentiation: emphasize uniqueness, customers not price sensitive (disney world) 3. Focus: focus on one certain product (redbox) Functional: Each dept. supports the competitive strategy

Step 1 Strategic Management Process

Where are we now? What is our mission?

Step 2 Strategic Management Process

Internal and external audits - SWOT Analysis

Step 3 Strategic Management Process

Create strategic options (expand market, etc.)

Step 4 Strategic Management Process

Review strategic options (narrow actions)

Step 5 Strategic Management Process

Make a strategic choice

Step 6 Strategic Management Process

Translate into goals (define and measure success)

Step 7 Strategic Management Process

Implement the strategies (use goals to inform new policies)

Step 8 Strategic Management Process

Evaluate performance (are you meeting the goals?)

Transactional HRM

HR practices that don't add value back to the company (benefits, paperwork, etc.)

How to do Strategic HRM

Attract/motivate employees, top managers must communicate overall strategy to HR and HR must communicate ways to support overall strategy

Balanced Scorecard

A way of tracking metrics (data) across a business, a concise way to manage across the organization (target exceeded or not?)

Strategy Maps

Visualize the balanced scorecard, clarifies roles of each dept. (HR = Learning and Growth)

Commitment vs. Control

Commitment: investing in employees Control: Labor costs as low as possible

HR Scorecard

People-Operations-Customer-Finance. Collect data, many possible metrics, only focus on strategy-based metrics


Comparing your metrics to other company's

High Performance Work Systems

Common strategic focus for HR, improve productivity/performance for employees (employment security, selective hiring, extensive training, etc), inimitable/research