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40 Cards in this Set

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1. Which areas of the “New World” did each of the European powers gain during the 17th and 18th centuries?
Like eastern Europe, western Europe experienced its own brand of state building and rivalry for power.
In this region as well as overseas, France and Britain uneasily shared dominance
What was mercantilism?
Mercantilism (mírr-kan-till-ism) Early modern governmental economic policies seeking to control and develop the national economy and bring wealth into the national treasury.
What does triangular trade mean?
Triangular trade Trade pattern between European nations and their colonies by which European manufactured goods were traded for raw materials (such as agricultural products) from the Americas or slaves from Africa.
Why did African slavery develop?
In the eighteenth century, the dramatic demand for slaves in the Americas shifted Africa's slave trade westward to the Atlantic coast.
Ships from Europe carried manufactured goods (most notably, guns) and gin to western Africa and traded them for slaves— two-thirds of them males, because they best provided heavy labor.
What were the destinations for African slaves?
Traders took most of their slaves to the West Indies and Brazil; less than 10 percent went to North American destinations.
What rivalries existed between the European kingdoms?
Britain vs France

Spain vs England

Prussia vs Austria
What was the importance of the Seven Years War and the Treat of Paris in 1763?
At the end of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the second of his two wars of aggression, Frederick made some attempts at “enlightened” reforms.
Treat of Paris
What are the characteristics of absolutism?

1. Supports bureaucracy- loyal to monarch

2. Forces nobility into subservient role

3. Forces church into subservient role

4. Increase taxation to support system

5. Establish professional standing army loyal to the monarch
1. Supports bureaucracy- loyal to monarch

2. Forces nobility into subservient role

3. Forces church into subservient role

4. Increase taxation to support system

5. Establish professional standing army loyal to the monarch

6. Attempt to expand kingdom territorially by force

Refusal to call into session advisory body of nobles, churchmen, commoners
What were the objectives of the absolutist rulers?
Justify absolute regime by divine right

Explain the concept of divine right

God put you here

God places the monarch on the throne
Specifically which kingdom and ruler provided a model for absolutism?
The model of Louis XIV 1643-1715 France

Model of absolute monarchy, hands on monarch

1. Built palace in Versailles

2. Church (Huguenots)

3. Army 1667-1714

4. Estates General 1614-1789
L'etat cest moi
meaning “I am the state”
Where was absolutism to be found in the 17th-18th centuries?
Spain, France, Austria, Prussia, Portugal
What is a constitutional monarchy and what are its main features?
Constitutional monarchy Government in which the monarch's powers are limited by a set of fundamental laws.
constitutional monarchy preserved popular sovereignty while creating a state that would prove highly stable.
How does a constitutional monarchy differ from an absolutist regime?
The power of the kings.
How did England develop such a regime in the 17th century?

1. England Civil War 1642-1649 over struggle between King and Parliament

2. House of Commons led rebellion

3. Charles I captured, tried and beheaded 1649

4. 1649-1660 Military dictatorship replaces the monarchy

Monarchy returns

Restored by Charles I son, Charles II in 1660
1. England Civil War 1642-1649 over struggle between King and Parliament

2. House of Commons led rebellion

3. Charles I captured, tried and beheaded 1649

4. 1649-1660 Military dictatorship replaces the monarchy

Monarchy returns

Restored by Charles I son, Charles II in 1660

Parliament became a legislative body- Habeas Corpus Act of 1679

Parliament becomes a legislative body
What type of government did the Dutch develop?
Republic constitutional monarchy
What was the geocentric theory?
Earth is the center of the universe
What was the heliocentric theory?
Sun is the center of the universe
What contribution did each of the following make to the Scientific Revolution: Copernicus, Galileo, Issac Newton?
All three concept of natural law

Copernicus-challenged scientific thinking and discovered earth is not the center of the universe

Galileo- used telescope concludes same as Copernicus. Discovered 4 major moons

Isaac Newton-Gravity (Gravity is power)
What are the main points of Locke's theory of government?
Wrote “Two Essays (Treatise) on Government” to defend the Glorious Revolution 1688

Locke states: “Men have certain rights they will acquire”

1. Life, Liberty and Property

2. God gave men reason (conclusion)(rationale) so they could form a government that would protect them in natural rights

3. One formed government owe allegiance as long as it protects your natural rights

4. When it stops, you have the right to remove it or destroy it
What are the characteristics of the Enlightenment?
The Enlightenment takes blinders off and helps you to “see” the “truth” and the way it is.
1. Emphasis on existence of natural laws –natural laws are gravity (God put them there)

2. Emphasis on human reason as the sole guide to the truth

3. The attack on the established church (hate the church)

The Roman Catholic didn't want them to know the truth and kept them in the dark (ignorance) truth (relics)

Arm of absolutist regime

4. The belief of inevitability of progress (things will get better)
What are some of the key ideas that emerged from the Enlightenment?
human reason should determine understanding of the world and the rules of social life.
Enlightenment emerged in the writings of people who popularized science, applied a skeptical attitude toward religious standards of truth, and criticized accepted traditions and authorities. (p462)
Define deism
Deism—that an impersonal, infinite Divine Being created the universe but did not interfere with the world of human affairs.(468)
What were the factors that influenced the French Revolution?
1. The Enlightenment

a. Critics undermine monarchy and French social structure

b. Doesn't cause Revolution but sets a tone

2. Political Frustration-

Nobility resent lack of input into the government of France

Haute (high, grand) bourgeoisie resent lack of political power in regard to economic standing,

3. Glorious Revolution

Set precedent (abusive king)

Lay down constitutional rule

4. American Revolution 1776-1783

War for independence, it was successful and France supported by ships, money and men.
Specifically why did France experience a Revolution in May 1789?
A peasant uprising in the countryside. Indicated the peasants had joined the revolution
Be able to distinguish the three phases of the French Revolution and the characteristics of each phase.
Phase 1-Moderate Phase The Constitutional Monarchy 1789-1792

Phase 2- Radical Phase The Republic 1792-1795

Phase 3-Thermidorean Phase The Republic 1795-1799
Declaration of the Rights of man and of the Citizen:
“Men are born and remain free and equal in rights,”.

The natural rights included “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.”

Sovereignty supreme authority rested with the nation as a whole

Freedom of opinion “even in religion,” freedom of the press, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
Rights of Woman and of the Citizen
Women should have the same political and social rights as men
What were the specific governments and constitutions that France experienced between 1789-1799 and which classes gained power in each instance?
To May 1789 Absolutism

Sept 1791 Constitutional Monarch middle class, bourgeoisie

Sept 1792-Oct 1795 State of Emergency middle level of middle class

Oct 1795-Nov 1799 Republic (military dictatorship) propertied bourgeoisie
What was the “Terror?”
Committee of Public Safety decreed a policy of Terror which meant that “enemies” of the Revolution could be arrested, tried and executed (by guillotine) also levee en masse which meant mobilization of the French people for the war effort. End of the Terror was when Robespierre was arrested, tried and executed at the end of July 1794
List the accomplishments of the French Revolution 1789-1799
1. The end of the absolutist regime in France and the signal for the end of absolutist regimes in Europe.

2. Proved that REVOLUTION could be used to accomplish change.

3. Idea of the “written” constitution

4. Stimulated the idea of “the people rule” and the concept of the nation

5. Established the principle that all citizens have certain “natural rights”

6. Established freedom of religion for the first time

7. In the modern area, example of the use of patriotism to defend the nation.

8. Brought about the end of the class system of privileged feudalism system
What were the legacies of the Revolution?
By Napoleon

1. Reform of France- considered to be the Son of the revolution

2. Military campaigns
Define coup'd'etat
Coup d'état (coo-day-táh) A sudden taking of power that violates constitutional forms by a group of persons in authority.
What were the two governments that Napoleon presided over 1799-1815
Republic and monarchy ---In 1851 Napoleon overthrew the republic in a coup d'etat and made himself Emperor Napoleon III
List and explain the principle reforms carried out by Napoleon
1. Church and State: the concordat of 1801
a. Declared the religion of the majority of Frenchmen, Roman, Catholicism (allow divorce)

b. The Church recognized the loss of its property

c. The State was paying the salaries of the clergy.

d. Napoleon re-instituted the Gregorian calendar.

2. Financial Reforms

Napoleon created the Bank of France which server as the central bank in France

Issued a new currency the “france” of 5 grains of silver

3. Public works

Used to stimulate the economy

Characterized by the building of records, bridges, canals.

Most outstanding achievement, the building of the Arc de Triumph.

4. Education

Established a public education system and created “elite” schools for training professionals.

5. Code Napoleon

Completed in 1804

The Code guaranteed the following:Freedom of religion

Individual right

Habeas Corpus

The Code gave France its first comprehensive law code.
Who was Toussaint L”ouverture?
Rebel leader who gained control of St. Domingue . helped oppose English, Spanish and French armies, turning the island into the independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
How did Napoleon deal with the rebellion in Haiti and what was the outcome?
Napoleon needed money in order to conduct war

The 1794 slave revolt in Haiti led by Touissant led to independence.

1803 sent army that captured Touissant and he was brought to France and died in prison. The French army suffered losses due to malaria and yellow fever. Napoleon exclaimed: ‘damn coffee, damn sugar, damn colonies”

1804 Haiti was granted its independence.
What was the Napoleonic empire, what were its boundaries and why was it important?
2-1804: a truce stopped the warfare that had begun in 1792

2. However, Napoleon's coronation in 1804 as Emperor had caused the European powers to fear the destruction of the balance of power.

3. Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia allied against him.
What was Napoleons importance to France and what is his legacy in the scheme of world history?
He spread ideas and concepts of French Revolution to all of Europe and the Middle East

Negative-warfare, destruction, un-needed loss of lives of soldiers, and civilians.