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128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
325, Father & Son, Nicene Creed
Constantinople I
381, Meletius vs. Gregory's affirmed diety of H.S.
431, Cyril vs. Nestorius
“Robber Synod”
2nd council in Ephesus
451, Pope Leo, Dioscuros, Eutyches, 2 natures
Constantinople II
553, Eutchius, 3 Chapters condemned
Constantinople III
680-681, George I, Pope Agatho, debate wills
754, Constantine V worked to get rid of icons
Nicaea II
787, Tarasios, iconoclastic controversy, authorized veneration
1414-1418, John XXIII, Sigismund, John Gerson, issue-papal schism, deposed 3 popes, burned John Huss
First Crusade
1095, Pope Urban II urged Frankish nobles to recover Jerusalem from Muslims
Second Crusade
1147-1148, motivated by Bernard of Clairvaux, recaptured Edessa from Turks
Third Crusade
1189-1192, retook Jerusalem from Saladin and Saracens,
Fourth Crusade
sacked Constantinople, Christians vs. Christians, motivated by Innocent III
Children’s Crusade
1212 resulted in thousands of children from France and Germany being sold into slavery or slaughtered.
Knights Templar
took on monastic vows of poverty, obedience to the church, and chastity, protected pilgrims on the way from Jerusalem to Jericho
Knights of St. John
former Benedictine monks, protecting pilgrims going to and from the sea and Jerusalem, however they could only act in defense (unlike the Templars).
Teutonic Knights
Germanic order established during 4th Crusade, hospitallers, 1199 official military order
John Chrysostom
347-407, great expository preacher, Bishop of Constantinople, "Doctor of the Church"
Augustine of Hippo
great scholar, wrote "Confessions" and "The City of God" battled Pelagianism
great scholar, learned Hebrew, translated Bible into Latin
Bishop of Constantinople, banished & anathematized @ Council of Ephesus
Cyril of Alexandria
main opponent of Nestorius
follower of Cyril, argued with Leo
of Byzantium, emphasized 1 person, 2 natures (Dyophysites)
Leo I, the Great
400-461, Bishop of Rome, involved in Nestorianism, conflict with Dioscorus
Gregory the Great
540-604, Bishop of Rome, after being a prefect and monk, suceeded Pelagius
Augustine of Canterbury
brings Christianity to Anglo-Saxons of England
Libyan, preacher in Alexandria, viewed Christ as created being, a demigod
Bishop of Laodicea, Christ had only body- no soul/spirit "God in a bod"
1 nature of Christ, clad in human flesh
2 natures, 2 persons, banished & anathematized @ Council of Ephesus
vs. Augustine, British monk, elevated human will, denied original sin
born in Mecca in 570, had visions from God, preached about Allah, used force to spread message, followers organized Qu'ran
established the peace of the Church (thousand years no persecution), tried to Christianize Rome, issued
Julian the Apostate
last of the pagan Roman emperors, nephew of Constantine, rejected Christianity, embraced Theurgy, a form of Neoplatonism,
Theodosius I
Emperor "_____ the great" declares Nicene Christianity to be official religion in Roman Empire, started 1st Council of Constantinople
Theodosius II
organized Council of Ephesus, issued Theodosian Code (death penalty for denying Trinity, repeated Baptism (Donatists), not recognizing Catholic baptism)
emperor of Eastern Rome, organized Council of Constantinople II, sought to restore Roman Empire
Emperor Leo III
emperor ordered an icon of Christ replace by a cross, run out of Rome and restored by Charlemagne
Emperor Leo V
emperor, reinstated ban on icons, reigned 2 months, killed by his chaplain
Leo IV's wife, secretly an iconodule, became co-regent with son Constantine VI
wife of Theophilus, became co-regent with son MIchael III, restored icons in empire
Charles Martel
son of Pippin of Herstal, succeeded him as governor, defeated Muslin forces in 732 at the Battle of Tours
King of the Franks, "Charles the Great", emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Emperor Alexius I
emperor at Constantinople, offered support of crusades so crusading army would be his vassals
Emperor Alexius IV
Alexius Angellus, former Byzantine emperor, offered Crusaders $ if they would restore his father Isaac II to power. Couldn't pay Crusaders, became unpopular, murdered.
Emperor Alexius V
Murtzuphlos, murdered Alexius IV, refused to pay crusaders, organized armies to attack them,
Frederick I
emperor of Holy Roman Empire, led 3rd Crusades
Richard I
(“the Lion Heart”) king of England, sold land to raise resources for 3rd Crusade
Philip Augustus
king of France, argued with Richard, King of England, left 3rd Crusade
sultan of Egypt, united the Muslim world under Jihad
Louis IX
king of France, led 7th Crusades in response to Muslim conquest of Jerusalem, defeated in Egypt
Byzantine Empire
Eastern Roman Empire, after 4th Crusade divided into Greek states, Sultan Mehmed II came in 1453 and took Constantinople, empire destroyed, end of the Middle Ages
Mehmed II
Sultan, brought 80,000 troops and took Constantinople, allowed Christians to remain, converted Hagia Sophia into mosque, helped end Byzantine Empire and the Middle Ages
John of Damascus
Syrian monk, prominent voice for iconodules against Constantine's wishes
Bernard of Clairvaux
motivated 2nd Crusade, established Cisterian monastery, famous preacher, hymn writer, "O Sacred Head Now Wounded" later quoted by Luther & Calvin
Anselm of Canterbury
major figure in Early Scholasticism, wrote "Satisfaction Theory of the Atonement" similar to idea of Substitutionary Atonement
Pierre Abelard
Early French scholastic philosopher, theologian, logician, and composer. Prominent affair with and love for Héloïse
Albertus Magnus
taught theology at University of Paris, one of the greatest philosophical minds of Middle Ages, taught Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
Dominican monk, studied in Paris, wrote "Summa Theologica", named "Teacher of the Church", tried to unite Aristotelianism & Augustinianism
William of Ockham
English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, wrote commentary, "Occam's Razor"
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch Renaissance Catholic priest, teacher, and theologian. Wrote on free willTranslated Latin & Greek New Testaments
Johannes Reuchlin
German-born humanist and a scholar of Greek and Hebrew
Jacques LeFevre
was a Frenchtheologian and humanist. He was a precursor of the Protestant movement in France. Debated Erasmus
Pope Adrian I
involved w/ Council of Nicaea II, At the time of his death at the age of 95, his was the longest papacy in Church history until it was surpassed by the 24-year papacy of Pius VI in the late 18th century.
Pope Leo III
run out of Rome, restored by Charlemagne, crowned him "Emperor of the Romans"
Pope Leo V
He was pope during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum. He was thrown into prison in September 903 by theAntipope Christopher, and was probably killed at the start of the pontificate of Pope Sergius III.
Pope Leo IX
caused split of Church of Roman Empire b/c of tension with Michael Cerularius of Constantinople
Pope Urban II
organized 1st Crusade, initiated church council in Clermont in 1095, wanted to get holy places back from Muslims
Patriarch Michael Cerularius
of Constantinople, refused to recognize the Church of Rome as head of all churches, was excommunicated
The Great Schism
East and West split of Church of Roman Empire, caused by "Filoque clause" and tensions between Michael Cerularius and Pope Leo IX
Babylonian Captivity
(Papal Schism) 70 year long period named after the O.T. Captivity of 70 yrs. It lasted from 1305–1377 during which the papal chair was carried away to Avignon, France.
Gregory XI
seventh and last Avignon Pope, persecuted Lollards during Great Schism
Martin V
involved w/ Council of Basel/Ferrara, returned power to Rome after he became pope after 3 popes deposed
hosted councils, schools, recaptured during 1st crusades
birthplace of allegorical hermeneutic, Egypt, 2nd largest city in Roman Empire,
destroyed in 70 AD, point of conflict during Crusades
capital of eastern part of Roman empire, located in modern Turkey and today known as Istanbul, was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine in 330
Greek city on the site that later became Constantinople (modern Istanbul)
permanent papal city,
Avignon, France
papal city moved here by Clement V
Filioque Clause
added "and the Son" to N-C Creed
Mary bore Christ, supported by Nestorius
Mary bore God (confused 2 natures) supported by Proclus of Constantinople & Cyril of Alexandria
Mary bore man (stress humanity of Christ) supported by Theodore of Mopsuestia
1 nature, 1 person= Jesus
2 natures, 2 persons= Jesus
1 will (divine/human combined) supported by Sergius & Macarius
Diothelite (or Dyothelite)
2 wills (distinct, inseparable) supported by Orthodox, Catholic (chalcedon view)
2 natures of Christ couldn't be represented in an image, sculpture or painting
argued icons were not idols, endorsed icons
Papal Authority
The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is an ecclesiastical doctrine concerning the respect and authority that is due to the Bishop of Rome. Primary causes of schism between the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church.
Satisfaction Theory of the Atonement
proposed by Anselm of Cantebury, similar to reformation understanding of Substitutionary Atonement
Ransom Theory of the Atonement
relating to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ, originated in Origen. The theory teaches that the death of Christ was a ransom sacrifice, usually said to have been paid to Satan, in some views paid to God the Father, in satisfaction for the bondage and debt on the souls of humanity as a result of inherited sin.
Moral Influence Theory of the Atonement
holds that the purpose and work of Jesus Christ was to bring positive moral change to humanity. This moral change came through the teachings and example of Jesus, the Christian movement he founded, and the inspiring effect of his martyrdom and resurrection.
Cosmological Argument
the existence of God, is deduced or inferred as highly probable from facts or alleged facts concerning causation, change, motion, contingency, or finitude in respect of the universe as a whole or processes within it.
Teleological Argument
from Socrates, for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator "based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural or physical world"
Ontological Argument
proposed by Anselm, tend to start with an a "priori" theory about the organization of the universe. If that organizational structure is true, the argument will provide reasons why God must exist.
Ockham’s Razor
is a problem-solving principle devised by William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347), who was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian.
Scholastic Theology
to harmonize the various authorities of their own tradition, and to reconcile Christian theology with classical and late antiquity philosophy, especially that of Aristotle but also of Neoplatonism
Natural Theology
provides arguments for the existence of God based on reasonand ordinary experience of nature
emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over established doctrine or faith (fideism).
Eastern Orthodoxy
emphasizes mystery (apothaticism), tradition, theosis (understanding of salvation), and icons. As opposed to the West: grace, justification, salvation, and sacraments.
or mystery, negative theology, the shadow rather that the light
understanding of salvation, sinful man changed to become "like God" or "God b/c man so that man might b/c God"
the witness of the Spirit, God continues to speak through the church,
Roman Catholicism
watered-down semi-Pelagianism, trace "keys" of the church through Peter, venerated saints,
Treasury of Merit
treasury of the Church consists, according toCatholic belief, of the merits of Jesus Christ and his faithful, a treasury that, because of the communion of saints benefits others too
a remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven, which the faithful Christian who is duly disposed gains under certain prescribed conditions through the action of the Church which, as the minister of redemption, dispenses and applies with authority the treasury of the satisfactions of Christ and the saints
Celibacy of Priests
outside of marriage, deliberate sexual thoughts, feelings, and behavior are sinful; allow your focus solely on God
established at Council of Basel/Ferrara, “If you die in the love of God but possess any stains of sin, such stains are cleansed away in a purifying process called Purgatory. These stains of sin are primarily the temporal punishment due to venial or mortal sins already forgiven but for which sufficient penance was not done during your lifetime”
edge or boundary, referring to the "edge" of Hell, is a speculative idea about the afterlifecondition of those who die in original sinwithout being assigned to the Hell of the Damned.
Immaculate Conception of Mary
efined in 1854 by Pius IX, was the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in her mother's womb free from original sin by virtue of the foreseen merits of her son Jesus Christ.
physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial.
7, Baptism (Christening), Confirmation (Chrismation), Eucharist (Communion), Penance (Reconciliation), Anointing of the Sick, Matrimony (Marriage), and Holy Orders (ordination to the various levels of the diaconate and priesthood).
were military campaigns sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church to initially reclaim the Holy Lands from the Muslims
a group of institutions within the judicial system of the Roman Catholic Church whose aim is to combat heresy.
Peter Waldo
sold all, radical service to Christ, followers called "Poor Men of Lyon" later named Waldensians,
Poor Men of Lyon
founded by Peter Waldo, later named Waldensians
Taught: voluntary poverty, lay preaching, authority of the Bible, later join Reformed branch of Protestant Reformation
John Wycliffe
"the Morning Star of the Reformation" followers known as Lollards, translated Bible from Latin Vulgate into English in 1382, opposed transubstantian, declared a heretic by Coucil of Constance
followers of John Wycliffe, wanted reformation of Western Christianity
John Huss
adopted Wycliffe's views, preached against corruption in RCC, faced persecution, burned at stake
reactionaries in Moravia & Bohemia who stood courageously against the papacy after Huss' death
followed Huss, or "Bohemian Brethren"
Girolamo Savonarola
Italian reformer, Dominican monk, follower of Thomas Aquinas, excellent preacher, settled in Florence, convicted of heresy and hanged and burned
Martin Luther
former monk, examined NT, Jesus alone is Lord of the church, broke away from Catholic Church, resulted in "the Protestant Reformation"