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175 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Peter Waldo
merchant, lay-preacher, better to obey God than to obey man, embraced a life of voluntary poverty and preached in Leon, hired priest to translate Bible into the language of the people, condemned by the Roman Catholic authorities
Poor Men of Lyons
followers of Peter Waldo
followers of Waldo after his death, focused on sermon on the mount, memorized Scripture
John Wycliffe
scholar, translated the Bible from Latin to English, opposed Catholicism, morning star of the reformation, professor, committed to Sola Scriptura, followers called Lollards
followers of Wycliffe, were sent to preach and sing Scripture
John Huss (Jan Hus)
scholar, university of Prague, preached at the Bethlehem Chapel, preached in Bohemian language, forced out for political reasons, book De ecclesia “Christ alone is the head of the church”, regarded as a heretic
Council of Constance
John Huss is invited, promised safe passage
followers of John Huss, took up arms and somewhat of a civil war following his death
Girolamo Savonarola
Florentine reformer, came into conflict with Pope, arrested and hanged/burned
Jacques LeFevre
French humanist, translation of Bible into French, influenced Calvin
Johann Reuchlin
uncle of Melanchthon, humanist, recovery of the study of biblical hebrew
John Colet
English humanist, influenced Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus
prince of the Dutch humanists, never officially joins the reformation, Greek NT
The Praise of Folly
written by Erasmus, satirical critique of Roman Catholic system
The Freedom of the Will
emphasizes human effort and also God does part of the work, an apple hanging from a high branch, written by Erasmus, synergism
Critical Greek New Testament
became standard Greek text, used to translate into the language of the people, written by Erasmus
Martin Luther
the "Saxon Huss", monk turn reformer, nailed 95 Theses and reacted to corruption in RCC
Johann von Staupitz
head of Augustinian monastery, Luther’s confessory, spiritual father to Luther
one of the most prestigious German Universities of its day, law school, monastery
new university was started in 1502, Luther taught here and earns doctorate, preached at the church
Philip Melanchthon
fellow faculty member of Luther, clarified forensic justification, based on the imputed righteousness of Christ
forgiveness/pardon, treasury of merit of which the pope is in control of, the pope can pardon sin
Albert of Hohenzollern
commissioned Johann Tetzel to sell indulgences in Germany
Johann Tetzel
Dominican monk selling indulgences, “as soon as a coin in the coffer rings, the soul in purgatory springs”, responds back with his own theses
95 Theses
Oct 1517, posted on door of Wittenberg castle church, written in Latin, translated into German, sparked a movement
Cardinal Cajetan
papal representative, assigned by Pope to try to stop Luther from continuing his criticisms of the Roman Catholic system
Johann Eck
debate on the topic of papal authority, Luther used scripture and the church fathers that papal authority had to support, got Luther to admit that he admired Huss
Leo X
pope, issues a papal bull(decree) to recant within 60 days or face excommunication(enemy of church and state), condemned Martin Luther
Diet of Worms
imperial counsel, Luther is summoned to make defense of his teachings before Charles V, promised safe passage, banned his writings, allowed people to kill him w/o consequence
Charles V
emperor, summons Luther, declares Luther an outlaw for refusing to recant
Frederick III
Luther was “friendly kidnapped” by Prince Frederick of Saxony, who took him to Wartburg Castle for protection
Wartburg Castle
place where the NT was translated from Erasmus’s Greek NT to German
Junker Jorge
the name Luther took while hiding at Wartburg castle
Andreas Karlstadt
faculty member, debated with Eck, caused trouble in Wittenberg, moderate reformer, allowed Zwickau Prophets to come in
Invocavit Sermons
Luther preaches in response to Zwickau Prophets violence when he returns to Wittenberg
Catherine von Bora
former nun, Luther’s wife (one of a group of nuns whom he had helped escape from a convent), happy marriage
Peasant Revolt
1525, radical Anabaptist preachers (Thomas Munzer, Zwickau Prophets) stirred up the people in Germany to rebel, Luther urged the people to obey civil government, he supported the rights of the nobility to crush the rebellion with force
Diet of Augsburg
brought peace to Protestants in Germany; emperor Charles V needed Protestant princes to side with him against the Turks, Lutherans and Catholics makes peace
Augsburg Confession
written by Melanchthon, Lutheran beliefs, that is accepted by Charles V, alliance is formed
Luther’s view of Communion, declared that it was both a sign and a vehicle of grace and that Christ really was present in the elements, the bread and the wine
Lutheran Catechism
attempt to educate lay people, distressed at lack of understanding of Christian doctrine, as a result he wrote both a small and large catechism which could be used to learn the basics of Christian faith, one of most important works
The Bondage of the Will
Luther's response to Erasmus’s work "the freedom of the will", total depravity, salvation is a work of God alone
Formula of Concord
Martin Kemnitz, compiled a book to unify all the different streams of Lutheranism
Council of Trent
anyone who teaches justification by faith alone is condemned
Ulrich Zwingli
Swiss reformer, nationalist, father was a civic leader,
Thomas Wyttenbach
professor influenced Zwingli, exposed him to Erasmus (humanism)

in Switzerland,Zwingli became parish priest here, 1/3 population died from plague

67 Articles
by Zwingli, the Bible is authority not the pope, the first public statement of the Reformed Faith
Bishop of Constance
petitioned by Zwingli to void mandatory celibacy of the priests, denied petition
First Disputation
the authority is the city council, Zwingli needs their help, he publicly defended 67 Articles of his evangelical belief, to gain religious independence, the council ruled to support Zwingli
Johann Faber
opponent Zwingli faced, was sent by the Bishop of Constance to defend the Catholic position
Second Disputation
to address the Mass and the use of icons, Zurich then started to make massive reforms (images removed, bones of saints buried, alters replaced by tables, organs in churches dismantled, choirs abolished, gold and silver melted from relics and crucifixes, monasteries transformed into shelters and schools)
Disputation against the Anabaptists
oppose infant baptism, Zwingli vs. former group (Swiss Brethren), city council sides with Zwingli
Heinrich Bullinger
Zwingli’s successor, focused on spiritual activity, agreed on memorial view with Calvin(the Lord is spiritually there), responsible for the Helvitic Confessions (two of them), great influence on Reformation efforts around Europe,
Marburg Colloquy
Zwingli meets with Luther, the two could not agree on the nature of Communion(the issue was the “real presence” of Christ), enough to drive wedge between them
Philip of Hesse
noblemen who gave the invitation of Marburg Colloquy
Memorial View
Zwingli’s view, not real body and blood, a sign of the means of grace, do this in remembrance of me
Jacob Kaiser
a Swiss evangelical preacher, was burned alive, death results in 2 wars
Wars of Kappel
two wars, Zwingli is killed in the 2nd, tension between protestant cantons and Catholics cantons
Casper Schwenkfeld
Spiritual mystics, influenced by Luther, Munzer and Karlstadt rejected infant baptism, Lutheran communion, war, denominations, taught “Spiritual presence”, Anabaptist
Andreas Karlstadt
student of Augustine, fellow faculty member with Luther, Luther opposed him as a radical, moderate reformer
Ulrich von Hutton
follower of Luther who advocated military force, leader of the Imperial Knights of the Holy Roman Empire and led them to revolt and was defeated
Zwickau Prophets
led by Nicholas Storch, attempted to bring spiritual change through political means (setting up a theocracy), rejected infant baptism, stirred up peasants, new revelation from H.S.
Thomas Muntzer
political fanatic, German radical reformer who turned against Luther, early leader of the Peasant’s Rebellion in Germany, battle cry was “all things are in common”, defeated
Melchior Hoffman
influenced by Luther, lay evangelist/preacher, held a Zwingli view of the Lord’s Table, rebaptized, predicted that Christ would return in 1533 and establish New Jerusalem in Strassborg
Jan Matthys
political fanatic, converted by Hoffman, identified Munster Germany as the New Jerusalem, taught adult baptism
John of Leiden
political fanatic, disciple of Matthys, political leader in Munster, set up an anabaptist theocracy there, fell to Franz von Waldeck, claimed to be descendant of David
Munster Rebellion
political fanatics start in Germany, John of Leiden was made king and declared himself a descendant of David, attempt made to establish a theocratic kingdom, his army was defeated, tainted Anabaptist name
Swiss Brethren
Anabaptists, disciples of Zwingli, considered to be the fountainhead of the Anabaptist movement, baptism and separation of church and state
Eberli Bolt
first Anabaptist martyr
George Blaurock
performed first baptism, swiss brethren, rejected the Mass, infant baptism, religious images
Felix Manz
Swiss Brethren, drowned in the lake, first Anabaptist leader martyred
Conrad Grebel
swiss brethren, father of the Anabaptist, aristocrat, had money
Balthaisar Hubmaier
abandoned infant baptism, baptized, debated with Zwingli, defended obedience to Scripture, executed, published pamphlets against Zwingli about baptism
Menno Simons
takes over a fractured Anabaptist movement in Germany, trained as a Catholic priest, fully embraced Anabaptist position, emphasized separation from the world (pacifism, non-violence)
Michael Sattler
Anabaptist, involved in early Schleitheim confession of faith, killed in Rottenburg
TULIP, committed to the glory of God, not himself, committed to the sovereignty of God in everything, committed to the authority of God’s Word, produces humility in salvation, interpretation (submission to what the text says) in a simple and clear way, personal level, obedience (justification and sanctification)
John Calvin
born in France, flees to Switzerland
forced to travel through Geneva to get to Strasbourg, returned to Geneva in 1541 for the rest of his life
Nicolas Cop
Calvin’s friend, had to flee because he preached reform in the church
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Calvin flees to Basel where he penned this apology (defense written to the King of France), We are not Anabaptists!
William Farel
in Geneva, convinced Calvin to stay and help him enact reform
Martin Bucer
invited Calvin to pastor a church in Strasbourg, German reformer/pastor, mentor to Calvin, friend of Luther
Calvin’s early ministry, reformed city, preached, published first commentary on Romans, gets married
Idellete de Bure
Calvin’s wife, a widow who had two children from previous marriage, had one son
church council, the city council approved Calvin’s Ecclesiastical Ordinances (established consistory), under the city council, no political power
Geneva City Council
political power, initially accepted reforms, ordered Farel and Calvin to use unleavened bread in Communion, fired Calvin, asked Calvin to consider returning
Pierre Ameaux
criticized Calvin and had to publicly beg God for forgiveness
Ami Perrin
invited Calvin to return to Geneva, family member was convicted of violating Geneva’s dancing prohibition; Perrin would become the primary leader of the Libertines
opposition groups united in Geneva, took control of the city council, wanted to make Calvin’s life miserable
Michael Servetus
anti-trinitarian rationalist, denied the deity of Christ, Spanish heretic, burned at stake by John Calvin
Theodore Beza
Calvin’s sidekick and successor, established school in Geneva with Calvin, its rector
John Knox
influenced by Calvin, Scottish Reformation, French Galleys, English Protestant refugee fleeing from Mary I, ministers alongside John Calvin, returns to Scotland after 3 years in Geneva, establishes Presbyterianism,
Spiritual Presence View
taught by Casper Schwenckfeld, that believers feed on Christ spiritually, also Calvin’s view
William Tyndale
executed by Henry, translated from the Greek, highly critical of Henry’s annulment
Henry VIII
married his brother’s widow (Catherine of Aragon) for political reasons, defended the Catholic Church against Luther, wanted to annul marriage (no boy), Pope refused, politically motivated
Thomas Cromwell
main catalyst pushing for reform, chief minister for Henry VIII
Thomas Cranmer
first archbishop of Canterbury, granted the annulment, reformed 39 articles and book of common prayer
Catherine of Aragon
first wife of Henry VIII, aunt of Charles V, gave birth to Mary
Act of Supremacy
laws that made Henry the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Anne Boleyn
Henry’s second wife, gives birth to Elizabeth, executed by Henry
Jane Seymour
Henry’s third wife, gave him a son (Edward VI)
Edward VI
son of Henry and Jane, 9 years old when he became king, monarchy shifted to support the Protestant Reformation, reigned for 6 years and died
Book of Common Prayer
published by Thomas Cranmer to make push to be more reformed
Mary I
daughter of Henry and Catherine, appointed herself Queen (a Catholic) after Edward dies, worked to undo the Protestant reforms of Edward, put to death nearly 300 Protestant (“Bloody Mary”)
Elizabeth I
daughter of Henry and Anne, comes to throne after Mary’s death (Protestant), brings stability to Protestant Reformation, 2nd act of supremacy “Supreme Governor of the Church of England”, reigned for 40 years
Act of Uniformity
required everyone to attend the Anglican church on Sundays and use the book of common prayer
reformed English Christians, arose during Elizabeth’s reign, Protestants, opposed Book of Common Prayer
Richard Hooker
to be one of the early architects of Anglicanism
Hugh Latimer
met with fellow theologians @ White Horse tavern, English reformer,
Thomas Cranmer
influenced by Luther, archbishop of Canterbury,
Book of Common Prayer
outlined how churches were to conduct themselves, becomes part of tradition, Puritans did not agree
Mary I
root out Protestantism, bloody Mary
John Foxe
wrote Foxes book of Martyrs
Elizabeth I
protestant queen, no heir, Puritans were disappointed, Bishop’s Bible
Act of Supremacy
Henry VIII declared “head of the Church of England”
Church of England (Anglican)
doctrine (reformed), liturgy (high church); followed book of common prayer; borderline Roman Catholic, government (Episcopalian, monarch as head of the church)
James I
king of England, cousin of queen Elizabeth, James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England, Puritans wanted new Bible (KJV)
Charles I
son of James I, married Henrietta Marie de Bourbon of France (Roman Catholic and disliked Puritans), wants to irritate the Puritans, executed by being beheaded
Charles II
son of Charles I, was defeated and sent into exile in Netherlands , restored to the throne after Cromwell dies, monarchy was restored, Church of England returned to its Civil War status
James II
son of Charles II, pro-RCC, Bloodless Revolution
Great Migration
20,000 Puritans flee to New England as a result of persecution under king Charles I, Mass. Bay colony joins Plymouth to be Commonwealth
Great Ejection
2,400 Puritan pastors left the church, became known as dissenters/ nonconformists
Act of Uniformity
under king Charles II, have to follow Book of Common Prayer
Acts against the Puritans
under Elizabeth, aimed at Separatists that prosecuted those who were not part of the Anglican Church, James and Charles
target of James I persecution, flee from England
Puritans who left under Charles II after RESTORATION, does not conform to the act of uniformity, hold illegal church meetings, formed their own separate congregations
Millenary Petition
Puritans asked James I to enforce, document that would have reformed the Anglican Church along Puritan lines, signed by 1,000
Hampton Court Conference
James I met with Puritan leaders, he largely sided against them (in favor of the more moderate Anglican bishops), saw the beginnings of the KJV Bible, James made it clear that he would support the Anglican bishops over and against the Puritans, persecution erupted
Richard Bancroft
archbishop who oversaw the translation of the KJV
William Laud
became the Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I, disliked Puritans because he viewed them as causing division, persecuted Puritan pastors who deviated from book of common prayer or who preached on predestination, Arminian, later executed
John Smyth
separatist that became a Baptist, got to Europe, influenced by Anabaptist ideas, regarded of founder of English Baptist Movement
Particular Baptists
particular redemption, Calvinistic
General Baptists
do not believe in limited atonement, Arminian
Richard Baxter
Puritan, minister and lecturer teaching families, wrote "The Reformed Pastor", "The Saints Everlasting Rest", a non-conformist who was often imprisoned for his preaching
John Bunyan
arrested for preaching illegally, a non-conformist, Pilgrim’s Progress
Matthew Henry
non-conformist, pastor and preacher in Chester and then in London, The Exposition of the Old and New Testaments
John Owen
chaplain for Oliver Cromwell, scholar, Dean and Chancellor at Oxford, friend of John Bunyan, called "Prince of the English Puritans"
Thomas Watson
well-versed in biblical languages, imprisoned, most articulate and readable Puritan, wrote "A Body of Divinity"
Oliver Cromwell
dictator of England during the Protectorate, “Lord Protector”, dissolved parliament, a steward of Puritan controlled nation of England, after death Charles II took over
Authorized Version
any version authorized by the crown, KJV of 1611 is 3rd version
Geneva Bible
translated by Swiss, with study notes
Puritan separatists who fled England because of James I
Mayflower landed here and established colony, ½ were Puritan separatists under John Robinson, William Brewster, and William Bradford
Massachusetts Bay
second wave established Mass. Bay colony, Rev. John White helped lead this wave. Helped found Boston. Men like John Cotton, Roger Williams, Thomas Hooker were spiritual, political leaders
New England

the “Great Migration” of 20,000 settled here from England

William Bradford
leader at Plymouth colony, governor
John Winthrop
Charles II gives him a colony grant, convinced Charles I to grant him land in the New World, secured Mass. Bay colony, governor
Roger Williams
discovers Baptist convictions, starts Providence, RI particular baptist
particular Baptist, in Rhode Island
school established in Mass. by Puritans in 1636, William Ames’ books started library
John Calvin
born in France, wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion, pastored church in Geneva
Theodore Beza
successor of Calvin in Geneva, established “Reformed Scholasticism”
Reformed Scholasticism
attempt to answer every doctrinal question, speculative theology, emphasized Scripture, tradition, reason, opposed to Lutheranism, by Beza
Jacob Arminius
opposed Supralapsarianism, Dutch theologian, emphasized man’s free will, professor at the University of Leiden, studied under Beza
Arminius' followers (protestors) presented the five articles of Remonstrance, protests, which noted their disagreements with Calvinism
Synod of Dort
helped establish doctrinal stability in response to Arminianism and the Remonstrans and five articles, then creates TULIP
Five Points of Calvinism
TULIP, English translations of findings of Synod of Dort
decree to save before or after? God decreed creation and the fall, double predestination, decree to elect is before to decree to create
God determined he was going to create, then after permit the fall, all of humanity is condemned to hell, God then determined to save some, single predestination, decree to elect is after to decree to create
Francis Turretin
Dutch theologian, reformed text in Latin
Martin Luther
the saxon huss, monk turn reformer, nailed 95 Theses and reacted to corruption in RCC
Philip Melanchthon
takes over after Luther dies
Martin Chemnitz
known as the 2nd Martin, complied the Book of Concord (unity)
Formula of Concord
doctrinal statement that unified strands of Lutheranism
Lutheran Orthodoxy
characterized by theological systematization and an emphasis on logic and reason, polemical opposition to any other system, defined Christianity in terms of correct doctrinal formulations, result “dead orthodoxy”
Thirty Years War
The Protestant/Catholic divide in Germany, bloodiest religious war in European history
reaction to “dead orthodoxy”, emphasized genuine spiritual experience and inward transformation, practical holiness and living
Philip Jakob Spener
1st major Pietist, father of German Pietism, Pia Desideria was actually a long introduction to the work of Johann Arndt, prolific writer and professor at the University of Halle
August Hermann Francke
successor of Philip Jakob Spener, 1st wave of Pietism, more biblical
Johann Arndt
an earlier Lutheran pastor who had spoken out against the dead orthodoxy of his day, wrote book & Spener wrote intro
Nicholas Ludwig Zinzendorf
leader of the 2nd wave of Pietism, leader among the Moravians, more mystical
a group tracing their spiritual heritage back to John Huss
Rene Descartes
Dutch, published Discourse on the Method, a new philosophy began to emerge in Europe, starts with human thought, human reason is how we explain the world, “I think therefore I am”, rationalistic approach
Age of Enlightenment
the elevation of human reason and emotion