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69 Cards in this Set

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What is asceticism?
Eschewing material goods and worldly distractions so one may facus on a greater purpose: The worship of God and fulfillment of His word
What is monasticism?
The withdrawal from society to focus on a living, pious, ascetic life devoted to God and Jesus
Who was Anthony (c. 280)?
A wealthy Egyptian businessman who converted to Christianity, then sold all his goods and gave them away. He then went to the desert and lived in a cave to seek spiritual union with God
Who was Athanasius (c.300)?
the Bishop of Egypt, who met Anthony and then wrote "The Life of Anthony" to promote the idea of monasticism, thus promoting monasticism thoughout Christendom
Who was St. Basil (330-379)?
He started the first monastic community (withdrawl, but with others for safety and strength) in Anatolia, then Greece, dedeicated to work and prayer, poverty and humility
Who was St. Benedict (480-547)?
He wrote "The Latin Rule", which was a guidebook for establishing a monastery along lines of work and prayer, chastity and obedience to the abbot, and moderation in life and diet
Who was Diocletian?
A mean who bought the Roman empire about 200 years before its collapse
What were Diocletian's reforms?
1. He established himself as the Dominate, the lord above all others
2. Established the tetrarchy
3. He formally separated the military from political chains of command, doubled the army's size (6x as many generals)
4. He stabilized currency, with there being about 40% as many coins as was previously in circulation -> higher mount of precious metal value
5. Attempted to fix prices and wages
6. Reformed the tax system so that 50% could be made in-kind, or with goods and services towards the local military
7. Moved the capital from Rome to Nicomedia. The Senate remained in Rome, and the administrative capital to Bithynia, which further entrenched his power
8. He retired and forced Maximillian to retire to see if the system worked
What was a tetrarchy in relation to Diocletian?
1. It divided the empire in half, then into fourths
2. His co-emperor/Augustus ruled the Western half of the empire: Maximian
3. He delegated new authority to two junior emperors
4. The rule of four: Every man governed a fourth of the empire, further subdivided into dioceses
4. The purpose of the Caesar is to govern her province and is the Augustus in training
What were the difference between the Eastern and Western Roman Empire?
1. The eastern half was much more economically stable and prosperous due to at least 6 very large cities of over 100,00 and the west only had Rome. This became the Byzantine Empire, which lasted 500 years after the Roman collapse. Their collapse led to the western Dark Ages.
2. The Eastern half spoke mainly Greek , or the elite language (Lingua Franca)
3. In the end, when the Roman empire collapsed, the eastern portion wasn't affected because they still had a common language and a strong local economy
Barbarian/Roman Relations:
Describe Octavian to late 2nd Century
Antagonistic- Barbarians were small clans and tribes who sent raiding parties of a couple dozen men into the Empire, easily defeated by well-trained and equipped leigons
Barbarian/Roman Relations:
Describe Early 3rd to Late 4th Century:
Symbiotic and Respectful - As Romans gained respect for Barbarian fighting skills and Barbarians addicted to Roman goods, relations become mutually respectful and supportive
Barbarian/Roman Relations:
Describe Early 5th Century to 6th Century
Agitation and Conflict: As the warm climate begins to cool, The Hun swoops in from the East , the slow migration of hundreds of Barbarian families into the Empire turns into a flood, one that is neither assimilated nor harnessed to support and defend The Empire
What were the reasons for the Decline of the Western Roman Empire?
1.The Era of Good Emperors ended with Marcus Aurelius in 180 AD with 3 effect - (a) efficacy of gornment declined as corruption and problems of secession increased (b) people began to lose faith in The Empire and it's currency (c) trade started to decline, therefore wealth was destroyed
2. Barbarians on the frontier ended two centuries of relative peace and began raids into The Empire, increasing the demands on the Roman military, warranting increased expenditures and attention
3. The great bureaucracy of the aristocracy - wealthy landowners throughout The Empire who had voluntarily supported it's efforts, turned away from The Empire and focused on local issues, threats, and markets
4. A growing number of citizens were Christians and barbarians who gave little support to The Empire, it's activities and needs
5. With poor leadership, an ineffective bureaucracy, porous borders, declining wealth, and little support from the masses, The Empire imploded, committing suicide rather than being conquered
What were the three effects of the Era of Good emperors ending with Marcus Aurelius in the Western Roman Empire?
1. The efficacy of govenment declined as corruption and problems of secession increased
2. People began to lose faith in The Empire and it's currency
3. Trade stated to decline, therefore wealth was destroyed
What does Lingua Franca mean, and what was it pertaining to the Roman Empire?
Language of the Elite; Greek
What does Islam mean?
What is the basic idea behind Islam meaning "submission"?

* This question is not asking about it's fundamentals or the Pillars
The person who follows the religion is to submit their life completely to the will of Allah
What was the geography of the Arabian Peninsula?
1. It was 85% surrounded by water except to the north. The only way out was through the Persian and Byzantine Empires, who were at war with one another
2. 98% of the peninsula is desert dotted with oases. This meant farming was horrible except for 2% of land, but they could grow dates at 3-4 crops per year. These would be dried, lasted up for a year, were very sweet, and made them almost as valued as grapes and olives.
3.The trade route was around the Byzantine and Persian war, which meant running caravans across the Arabian Peninsula
4. There was a lot of herding done: Camels, Goats Sheep
5. There were much stealing by way of raiding town and caravans
What was the largest city in the Arabian Peninsula?
Mecca, which was a religious center (the first temple to Yahweh), and it was the biggest oasis (trade of water)
Did Islam practice idolatry?
Yes, and they used the idols to talk to the Gods
What were two features of Mecca?
1. It was the religious center, having the First Temple to Yahweh
2. It was the biggest oasis on the Peninsula, so there was trade of water
Outline the life of Muhammad
Born in Mecca in 570 into the Quarish tribe (It was the aristocracy of traders/entrepreneurs). His father died before he was born and his mother died when he was 5, so he was raised by his Uncle Abu Talib to be a caravan leader initially, but seeing as he showed promise, in business. At 18 he got his first caravan containing goods from a rich widow named Khadija. The widow sent a spy along with him to see how well did he, and he made it back in near record time. Because the spy gave glowing reports, she makes Muhammad her business manager and falls in love with him and they marry when he is 25. With this financial security, he devotes himself to meditation, and seeks enlightenment in the surrounding hills for long periods seeking The Truth about God. In 610, Gabriel comes to him in a cave and begins to recite The Qu'ran, which Muhammad memorizes and tells others in Mecca, who then write the recitations down. At this, he accepts his calling at The Prophet and begins to build a small following. In 622, the rulers of Mecca hire assassins to kill Muhammad because he threatened their power and they feared he's diminish the importance of the The Kabba. He flees with Abu Bakr to Yathrib because they are impressed with his visions. Yathrib is renamed Medina (City of the Prophet) and Muhammad begins building political power to add to his religious message/mission. This becomes Muslim Year 1. In 630, he returns to Mecca and lays siege until it surrenders, then makes it his capital. He returns to Medina to live, but makes the annual hajj (pilgrimage). In 632, he dies.
Who were the Quarish tribe (what Muhammad was born into?)
The aristocracy of traders and entrepreneurs
What was Muhammad's Uncle's name that raised him to be a caravan leader, then businessman?
Abu Talib, and he raised his own sons to be traders
What is the name of the widow who's goods made up the Caravan Muhammad had? What did she make him due to his speedy results?
Khadija; Her business manager, then husband.
At what age did Muhammad get his first caravan?
Age 18
At what age is Muhammad marry Khadija?
After he marries, what does Muhammad devote himself to? What is he seeking?
Meditation; The Truth about God
In 610, which Archangel met with Muhammad in the cave what did he recite to him? When was it written down?
Gabriel; The Qu'ran; People in mecca write it down after he tells it to them
When does Muhammad accept his calling as a prophet?
After the Qu'ran is written down in Mecca following Muhammad reciting it to them
Who was Abu Bakr in relation to Muhammad?
His good friend and future father in law.
Where do Muhammad and Abu Bakr flee after assassins are sent to kill him in Mecca?
They flee to Yathrib, which is then re-named Medina
What does Medina mean?
City of The Prophet
What does hajj mean?
In what year does Muhammad die?
What year did Muhammad lay siege to Mecca until he conquered it and made it his capital?
In what year did Archangel Gabriel visit Muhammad at his cave?
What are the five pillars of Islam?
1. Submission to God, meaning Allah is the one true god and Muhammad is the last Prophet
2. Prayers, which are 5 times a day in Arabic while facing Mecca. Communal prayers are usually at noon on Friday
3. Fasting is done during the month of Ramadan from sun up to sun down
4. Zakat, meaning 2.5% of your income or wealth is dedicated to helping people of the faith
5. The hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca if financially able to otherwise, once in a lifetime
6. Jizya, a tax levied on non-muslims to cover Zakat
What is Zakat?
A 2.5% portion of wealth of income to be dedicated to helping people of the faith
What is hajj?
The trip to be made by Muslims once in their lifetime unless there are extenuating circumstances. Is one of the five pillars of Islam
What is jizya?
A tax levied on non-muslims to cover zakat
What happened after Muhammad's death?
Abu Bakr takes over. After he dies, Umar takes over. This wasn't through blood or marriage, but because he was the strongest tribal leader. In 644, Umar dies and Uthman takes over, but wasn't as highly regarded was Uman. He is challanged by Ali, Muhammad's cousin/son-in-law who was adopted. Ali stated a rival faction that belived political rule should be by an imam, or a direct descendent to Muhammad through Ali. In 656 Uthman is assasinated by Ali's people. In 660 Ali is assasinated by Uthman's men. The followers of Ali took the name Shi'ite. The followers of Uthman took the name Sunni.
After the death of Muhammad, who first took over?
Abu Bakr
After the death of Muhammad, who took over after Abu Bakr died?
After the death of Muhammad, after Abu Bakr and Umar died, who takes over?
Who was Uthman challenged by after the death of Muhammad?
Ali, the cousin/son-in-law of Muhammad. He believed that imams, or those descendant of Muhammad though Ali should rule
Who was Uthman assasinated by?
Ali's people
Who was Ali assasinated by?
Uthman's men
What did the followers of Ali come to be known as?
What did the followers of Uthman come to be known as?
What are three things that Charles Martel did?
1. He repelled the Muslim forces in 732 in The Battle of Tours, thus expanding the Frankish empire to the south.
2. He created a system of alliances and allegiances to his great army (Feudalism)
3. He developed an alliance with Christian missionaries to convert the franks (Roman Catholicism)
What are two things Pepin Martel (Pepin III) did?
1. Struck a deal with the pope to crown him king by an emissary of the church (The divine right of kings)
2. The Franks become the pope's army, the protectors of the church. This was tested when the Lombards threaten to attack rome
What is Feudalism?
The political and social relationship between a lord and his vassals, kings down to local lords, to provide the order and political stability to make the Medieval period work
In Feudalism, what does the Vassal owe the Lord?
1. Homage/Allegiance
2. Forty days of military service per year
3. Counsel, or advice
4. Ritual payments and support (Ransom, weddings, son's knighting)
In Feudalism, what does the Lord owe the Vassal?
1. A fief, or land/peasants for his support
2. Protection (physical and legal)
3. Boon payment, or overtime, if military service is for over 40 days
What were the important parts of the Agricultural revolution in Europe?
1. New farming technologies. ex: Heavy wheeled, iron tipped plows (broke thick soil in England), Harneses and collars for horses/oxen; tandem harnessing, Iron horse shoes and stirrups, wheel barrows, widespread use of iron in most hand tools
2. Non-Animal power: such as the water mill and wind mill. This meant constant power, better iron, steel, and glass
3. Climate warming: meant a longer growing season, growing further north
4. Creating of the 3 field system of crop rotation: 1/3 cultivated, 1/3 prepared for next season, 1/3 fallow. Increases production 33%
5. Expanding demand....people traveled and experienced a greater variety of goods, therefore then wanted them back at home. People had more wealth.
Define Manorialism
The economic and social relationship between a lord and his peasants
In Manorialism, what does the peasant owe the lord?
1. Three days of labor on lord's land
2. Ritual presents confirming status (Easter, Xmas)
3. Peasant's presence on the manor (could pay a fee to leave)
In Manorialism, what does the Lord owe the peasant?
1. Protection from invaders
2. Land for the peasants to work
3. House and small plot for garden and pen
4. Local justice
In Manoralism, what are the parts of the manor?
1. Rotated fields- Spring (legumes, oats, veggies), Fall (wheat, rye, grains), fallow
2. Fields are separated into long thing strips, with 45% being for peasants, 45% for Lords demesne, and 10% for the church.
3. All peasants live in the village, along with the church and parsonage. The lord and his support services (press, oven, mill) are nearby
4. Lord has private garden and orchard, forest and close/hunting area. Peasants have common pasture, meadow, and forest
How did the Crusades begin?
In 1096, the Turks had conquered almost all of Asia minor and laid siege to Constantinople. The Byzantine emperor and Orthodox pope were one and the same. Alexius sent for help from the Roman Catholic pope and all Christians for help to defeat the Muslims and the take back the Holy Land. The Army went by land to defend Constantinople and marched on to take Jerusalem. Within 30 years, Jerusalem was lost again to the Turks. It was also a defensive manuver.
Define the Crusades
The Crusades were a series of 7-8 discreet (or separate and definable) wars from 1097-1270 between European Christians and the Seljuk Turks (Muslims) for control of the Holy Land
What were the Motives for the Crusade?
1. Christian Fervor, or to rescue the Holy Lands from the Muslims or desire for salvation
2. Titles and land, because many wanted titles/land. This was predominately second/third sons and peasants
3. The prospect of adventure
4. Duty, or rather, the duty Vassasls owed to the lord
What were the results of the Crusades?
1. The Byzantine Empire lost power and status to Europe
2. Each Crusade boosted the European economy, especially for Italian city-states
3. Between Crusades, boosted travel and communications and trade as Crusaders returned with tastes for Eastern goods and stories that spawned travel
4. Little impact on Muslims since it barely disturbed their trade, but it did cause an irreparable antipathy for Christian Europe
5. Deepened antisemitism in Christians
What was the change in Governance (post-crusades)?
1. Goes from "Kings of People" to "Kings of Territory"
2. Everyone who is int hat territory has to support that king unless they want to be killed or exiled
What was the Fourth Lateran council/What did they do?
1. A council that defined the central dogmas of the Christian faith, and the seven sacraments
2. All Christians had to acknowledge the Pop's ultimate power, those unwilling were called heretics and had to be punished/prosecuted
3. Established free primary schools
Discourages social relationships, economic hardships, intermarriage between Christians/non-Christians
5. Infidels were to wear distinctive clothing
What is dogma?
The truth necessary for salvation
What are the seven sacraments?
1. Baptism
2. Confirmation
3. Eucharist (Yearly)
4. Confession (Yearly)
5. Marriage (Can't be forced)
6. Last Rites
7. Holy Orders