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147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
countless chemical reactions that sustain life
What is another name for Producers and what are they (describe)

they make their own food by extracting nutrients and energy from nonliving sources
define Consumers and what are they
they obtain energy and nutrients by eating other organisms
What are decomposers, what is another name for them, and what do they do?

they obtain energy and nutrients from wastes or dead organisms
What is homeostasis?
the process by which a cell or organism maintains this state of internal consistency or homeostasis
What are the two ways that reproduction occurs?
Sexually and asexually
What does reproduction do?
transmits DNA from generation to generation
What happens in asexual reproduction?
generic information comes from only one parents an all offspring are virtually identical
What happens in sexual reproduction?
when the genetic material from two parent individuals unite to form an offspring, which has a new combination of inherited traits
What does mixing genes at each generation do? (sexual reproduction)
results in tremendous diversity in a population
What is adaptation?
an inherited characteristic or behavior that enables an organism to survive and reproduce successfully in its invironment
What is natural selection?
the enhanced reproductive success of certain individuals from a population based on inherited characteristics
What is taxonomy?
the biological science of naming and classifying organisms
What is the basic unit of classificaiton with regards to taxonomy?
What is a species with regards to taxonomy
This designates a distinctive "type" of organism
What is a genus with regards to taxonomy
What the species are grouped into
What do taxonomists strive to do?
classify organisms according to what we know about evolutionary relationships
What are the three domains of taxonomic categories
bacteria, archea and eukaryotes
How are bacteria and Archaea similar
both are single-celled prokaryokes (DNA is free in the cell and not confined to a nucleus
Define domain Eukarya
contain all species of Eukaryota which are unicellular or multicellular organisms that contain a nucleus
What are the kingdoms of Eukarya?
Protista, Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae
What is the scientific method and it's parts?
- a general way of using evidence to answer questions and test ideas

1. Observation/Pose a question
2. Hypothesis
3. Data Collection
4. Analysis
Who developed the theory of natural selection?
Charles Darwin
What is peer review?
Where scientists independently evaluate the validity of the mathods, data, and conclusion
What is an experiment?
an investigation carried out in controlled conditions
What is a sample size?
the number of individuals that the scientist will study
What is a variable?
a changable element of an experiment
What is an independent variable?
What the scientist manipulates to determine whether it influences the phenomenon of interest
What is a dependent variable?
What the scientist measures to determine whether the independent variable influenced the phenomenon of interest
What is a constant or standardized variable?
Any variable intentionally held constant for all subjects in an experiment, including the control group
What is a placebo?
An inert substance that resembles the treatment given to the experimental group

ex. sugar pills
What is a theory?
an explanation for a natural phenomenon, but broader in scope than a hypothesis
What forms molecules?
What do molecules form?
Organelles within cells
What do cells form?
What do tissues form?
What do organs form?
Organ systems
What do multple individuals of the same species form?
What do populations form?
What do ecosystems incorporate?
The nonliving and living environment
What do ecosystems form?
The biosphere
What does life require?
What must organisms maintain
What is matteR?
any material that takes up space
What are three forms of energy?
heat, light, and chemical bonds
What is a chemical element?
a pure subsance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into other substances
Who invented the periodic table?
Dmitry Mendeleyev
How many elements are essential to life?
What are the four most abundant bulk elements in life?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen (CHON)
What are trace elements?
Elements that are required in small amounts
What is an atom?
The smallest possible piece of an element that retains the characeristics of the elemtn
What carries a positive charge and where are they?
Protons, in the nucleus
What carries a negative charge and where are they?
electrons, around the nucleus in the electron cloud
What carries a neutral charge and where are they?
Neutrons, in the nucleus
What does the atomic number signify?
The amount of protons in the nucleus
When is an atom electrically neutral?
When the number of protons equals the number of electrons
What is an ion?
An atom that has gained or lost electrons and there form has a negative or positive charge

ex. H+, Na+, K+

ex. OH-, Cl-
What does a mass number of an atom signify?
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
What is an isotope?
An atom that has a different number of neutrons
How does one calculate neutrons?
Subtract the atomic number from the mass number
What is the atomic mass/atomic weight?
the average mass of all isotopes
If something is radioactive, what does that mean?
that they emit energy as rays or particles when they break down into more stable forms
What is a molecule?
Two or more chemically joined atoms
What is a compound?
a molecule composed of two or more different elements
What is an orbital?
The most likely location for an electron relative to its nucleus
What is an energy shell?
a group of orbitals that share the same level, this tells the number of electrons a shell can hold
What is a valence shell?
the outermost occupies energy sell
What is a chemical bond?
an attractive force that holds atoms together
What is a covalent bond?
When two atoms share electrons
What is electronegativity?
a measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons
What is a non polar covalent bond?
a bipartisan union in which both atoms exert approximately equal pull on their shared electrons
What is a polar covalent bond?
a lopsided union in which one nucleus exerts a much stronger pull on shared electrons
What is an ionic bond?
an electrical attraction betwwn two ions with opposite charges
What happens in a hydrogen bond?
opposite partial charges on adjacent molecules, or within a single large molecule, attract each other
What is cohesion?
the tendency of water molecules to stick together
What is surface tension?
the tendency of a liquid to hold together at its surface
What is adhesion?
the tendency to form hydrogen bonds with other substances
What does hydrophilic substances mean?
substances that readily dissolve in water because they are polar or charged
What does hydrophobic substances mean?
non polar molecules that do not dissolve or form hydrogen bonds with water
What does water do as an unusual property?
resist temperature changes
What is evaporation?
he conversion of a liquid into a vapor
What are hydrogen molecules locked into hexagonal shapes?
When it's ice
What is a chemical reaction?
when two or more molecules swap their atoms to yield different molecules/some chemical bonds break and new ones form
What are reactants in a chemical reaction?
the starting materials
What are the products of a chemical reaction?
the results of the reaction
In chemical reactions _______________ or ___________.
atoms neither created or destroyed
What is the pH scale?
What part of the pH scale are acids?

ex. stomach acid, lemon juice, soda, tomato juice, coffee
What part of the pH scale is neutral?

ex. pure water, saliva
What part of the pH scale is basic?

ex. blood, tears, seawater, bile, baking soda, bleach, ammonia, soap, baking soda
What is the buffer system?
pairs of weak acids and bases that resist pH changes
What are organic molecules?
chemical compounds that contain both carbon and hydrogen
What are the four most abundant types of organic molecules in organisms?
Lipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
What are three monomers?
Proteins, nucleic acids, and some carbs
What do monomers link together to create?
How does your body create new polymers and muscle proteins?
dehydration synthesis, removing one -OH
What hydrolysis?
Adding a -OH
What do carbohydrates consist of?
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in the proportion 1:2:1
What is a hexagon or pentagon in relation to monomers?
What are monosaccarides?
The smallest charbohydrate
What are disaccharides?
two monosaccharides joined by dehydration snthesis
What are ogliosaccarides?
3-100 monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis
What are polysaccharides/complex carbohydrates?
100+ monomers
What forms plant cell walls?
What is the second most common polysaccharide in nature?
What do most plants store?
Do lipids dissolve in water?
What is a triglyceride?
thee long hydrocarbon chains called fatty acids bonded to glycerol
What is a saturated fatty acid?
a triglyceride that contains all the hydrogens it possibly can

A unsaturated one has at least one double bond between carbon atoms
What is a transfat?
unsaturated fats whose fatty acid tails are straight and not kinked
What do more jobs in the cell that any other type of biological molecule?
What is a protein a chain of?
amino acids
Are proteins long chains inside a cell?
What is the primary structure of a protein?
amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
substructure with a defined shape, folded into coils, sheets, and loops
When is a protein denatured?
when its structure is modified enough to destroy its function
What are two nucleic acids?
What are cells?
the smallest unit of life
What is cell theory?
1. all organisms are made of one or more cells
2. the cell is the fundamental unit of life
What are the two primary kinds of microscopes?
Light Microscopes and Transmission/Scanning Electron Microscopes
What are the two kinds of light microscopes?
1. compound -2 or more lenses, visible light through a specimen

2. confocal- focuses white or laser light through a lens to the object
What does TEM microscope do?
sends a beam of electrons though a very thin slice of a specimen
What does a SEM do?
send a beam across the suface of a metal coated, 3d, specimen
What parts do all cells have?
DNA, RA, r ibosomes,cytoplasm, and a cell membrane
What do ribosomes do?
structures that manufacture proteins
What is cytoplasm?
the fluid that occupies much of the volume of the cell
What does a cell membrane do?
forms a boundary between the cell and its enviroment
What are prokaryotes?
organisms whose cells lack a nucleus
What are eukaryotes?
cells that contain a nucleus and other membraneous organelles
What is the nucleoid?
the area where the cell's circular dna molecule congregates
What are flagella?
tail-like appendages that enable cells to move
What is the cell wall and is it found in animal cells?
Not found in animal cells, protects the cell and prevents it from bursting if it absorbs too much water
What are organelles?
what the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is divided into that carries out specialized functions
What happens in a phospholipid?
glycerol bonds only to 2 fatty acids
What does a phospholipid bilayer cause?
selective permeability
another name for the cell membrane?
fluid mosaic
What is an endomembrane system and it's parts?
cosists of several interacting organelles/ internal membranes

- he nuclear envelope,
- endoplasmic reticulum
- golgi apparatus
- lysosomes
- vacuoles
- and cell membrane
What does the nucleus contain?
DNA, teh cell copies these into RNA
Where does the mRNA exit the nucleus?
nuclear pores, which are holes in the nuclear envelope
What does the nucleolus do?
assembles the components of the ribosomes
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
a network of sac and tubules composed of membranes

- smooth and rough exist
What is the golgi apparatus?
a sack of flat, membrane-enclosed sacs that function as a processing center for proteins coming from the ER
What are vacuoles and what kind of cells do they occur in?
Plant cells, contains salt/sugar/weak acids/enzymes
Do animal cells have chloroplasts?
What are mitochondria?
organelles that use a process called cellular respiration to extract the needed energy from food
What is a cytoskeleton?
in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cels, an intricate network of protein tracks and tubules
What are plasmodesmata
Channels that connect adjacent cells

- tight junction ======
-anchoring junction v^v^v^
- gap junction ==| | ===| |=== | |