• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the Byzantine Empire?
- the eastern half of old Roman empire
Who is Emperor Justinian?
- makes Justinian code
- tries to restore old roman empire
- christian emperor creates one faith
___________ - a set of laws created by Justinian created for the empire
- Justinian Code
_______ a famous church that Justinian built.
- Hagia Sophia
How does Islam differ from Christianity?
- claims that Jesus was a prophet
Who is Muhammad?
- Allah's (Islam god) final prophet
What is "People of the Book?"
- title for Christians that Muslims gave them.
- Muslim's tolerant for Christians
What is a wergild?
- honor price
- pay for killing someone for compensation
- prevents blood feud
Who defeated Muslims at the Battle of Tours.
- Charles Martel
What was Charles Martel's nickname and what was his job?
- Charles the Hammer
- Mayor of Palace (2nd in command in Merovingian kingdom)
What/Who is Charlemagne?
- unites Germanic peoples into single empire
- converts everyone into Christianity
- called emperor and Augustus
Who were the royal messengers and what did they do?
- Missi Dominici
- keep eye on count
____________ - divides Charlemagne's empire between grandsons into 3 pieces
- Treaty of Verdun
What are 4 characteristics of the vikings?
- used long-ships
- attacked monasteries
- settled in England (Danelaw)
- tried to take slaves and plunder
Who is Alfred the Great and what does he do?
- King of Wessex
- stops Vikings from taking over all of England
________ - political/social system between the Lords and Vassals
- Feudalism
Who were the Lords and Vassals?
- Lords give gifts to Vassals
- Vassals give services to the Lords
___________ - contract that describes gifts the Lords gives Vassals and services Vassals give to Lords
- Oath of Fealty
___________ - economic/social system. Lords provide protection for peasants and peasants work the land for the Lords. Have a 3 field crop rotation that helps crops grow.
- Manorial system
___________ - rise of towns and cities. Revivals of trade and universites
- Commercial revolution
___________ - using reason to understand God and His truths/
- Scholasticism
Who was the father of English Common Law?
- King Henry II
_______ increases the number of services that nobles have to provide. Changes terms of oath of fealty.
- John I
_______ - king must follow the law too.
- Magna Carta
What is the Great Schism of 1054?
- church splits into Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodoxy
__________ - Who gives bishop authority: King or Pope?
- Investiture Controvery
What is the Concordat of Worms?
- King can give Bishop land and Pope gives authority
What are characteristics of the Fourth Lateran Council?
- church controls marriage
- go to mass once a year
- do confession
- no tolerance of Jews (wear badges)
- war on heresy
What was the crusade of the Cathars?
- Albigensian Crusade
What did the Cathars believe?
- man must be perfected to go to heaven or you get reincarnated
What is the First Crusade?
- Alexis I
- Muslims are getting too close to Constantinople.
- Calls for Christian knights/mercenaries to come attack Muslims
What does Pope Urban change and what does he promise?
- Changes call to fight into a spiritual fight
- Promises indulgences to those who fight
What is the People's Crusade?
- peasants who go on a crusade
- Jewish massacres
- not successful
- led by Peter the Hermit
Who was the People's Crusade led by?
- Peter the Hermit
What did Peter the Hermit lead?
- the People's Crusade
Who protected Pilgrims in Jerusalem?
Knights Templar
Who is Saladin?
- defeats crusaders at Battle of Hattin and captures
Who is in the Third Crusade?
- Fredrick Barbosa (German)
- Phillip Augustus (French)
- Richard Lionheart (England)
What is the Fourth Crusade?
- ends up attacking Christian cities for Phoenicians
What are some characteristics of the Black Death?
- attack on Jews
- lack of Priests
- social chaos
- lack of trade
- political problems like peasant problems
Why were they rebelling in the English Peasants' Rebellion of 1381?
- because of the new pole tax
Why did the Hundreds Year War start?
Who wins?
- succession controversy over the throne of France
- English king has a claim
- doesn't get kingship
-King Philip is in place
- Philip takes Edwards land
- France
What was Joan of Arc's role in the Hundreds Year War?
- hears voices of saints
- fights in battle and wins
- dresses like a man
- she's captured and burned alive at the stake as a heretic
What is another name for the Avignon Papacy?
- Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy
Where are the popes living during the Avignon Papacy?
- Avignon, France
What is the problem with the Avignon Papacy?
- people sees Popes as Vassals of French King
- terrible public relations
- campaign disaster
What is the Western Schism (1378-1415)? What separates?
- 3 claiming to be Pope
- roman 2 rival Popes
What does the Council of Constance end? How?
- The Western Schism
- by putting one guy in charge, deals with matter like heresy
- burns John Hus at stake
What are some things about John Wycliffe?
- translates Bible into English
- has followers called lollards
- says that you don't have to go the the Pope to confess
- religious leaders should stay out of politics
Who were the Lollards?
- John Wycliffe's followers
What is significant about John Hus?
- burned alive at the Council of Constance
- reformer
____________ - ordinary people trying to live a more spiritual life.
Movement of laity.
- Devotio Moderna Movement
Who are an example of the Devotio Moderna Movement? How are they unique?
- Brothers (and sisters) of the Common Life
- live in community, different from monks and nuns because they don't take vows.
What was Johannes Gutenberg's claim to fame?
- the printing press
What is Italian Humanism?
- shift towards studying humanity using reason and classical philosophy
What is Christian Humanism? What does it add?
- still wants to understand humanity, study classical philosophy.
- wants to study early Christian church fathers
Who wrote "The Prince?" and what does he argue?
- Niccolo Machiavelli
- politics must match reality
___________ - a christian humanist who publishes a new testament in Greek. His view of church leadership - critically, wants to reform them. Not a protestant!
- Desiderius Erasmus
What are the main points of Martin Luther's theology?
- justification by faith alone
- predestination
- priesthood of all believers (go to God directly)
- scripture as ultimate authority
- against indulgences
What are the Anabaptists claim to fame?
- adult baptism and pacifists for the most part
How does John Calvin's theology differ from Martin Luther's?
- double predestination
- no bishops (ministers and elders)
- simplistic
- strong emphasis on more behavior
Who is Henry VII associated with? What does he become?
- Act of Supremacy
- head of the England church
What is the inquisition and whom does it target?
- catholic responses Protestants
- targets protestants and puts them on trial before the inquisition
Who are the Jesuits or the Society of Jesus?
- they send missionaries and build schools
_________ - lists out all the major beliefs of the Catholics
- Council of Trent
_______________ - the bread and the wine turn into Jesus' body.
- Transubstantiation