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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Empirical Evidence

Information obtained through systematic observations and experiences

Developmental Scientists

Experts who study development - regardless of their disciplinary training

Prenatal Period

Development from conception to birth


Development from birth to 2 years

Early Childhood

Development from 2 to 6 years

Middle Childhood

Development from 6 to 11 years


Development from 11 to 20 years

Young Adulthood

Development from 20 to 40 years

Middle Adulthood

Development from 40 to 65 years

Later Adulthood

Development from 65+

Physical Development

Changes in shape, size, outward appearance and inner physical capabilities (locomotion, perception and sensation); changes in the structure and functioning of the brain

Cognitive Development

By Piaget; Changes in intellectual abilities (memory, thinking, reasoning, language, problem solving and decision-making)

***Just in children***

Socio-Emotional Development

Changes in feeling and motivation, temperament/personality and relationships with others


Relatively enduring growth and change that makes an individual better adapted to the environment

Developmental Trajectory

Pathway of developmental change that connects the past, present and future

Psychoanalytic Theory

By Sigmund Freud; focuses on the inner self and how emotions determine the way we interpret our experiences and thus how we act

Psycho-Social Development

By Erik Erikson; Development is successfully solving each crisis we are presented with at the different stages in our lives; we develop over the entire lifespan and build upon previous stages. Adolescence is the most important stage.

8 Psycho-Social Virtues

1. Hope

2. Will

3. Purpose

4. Competence

5. Fidelity

6. Love

7. Care

8. Wisdom

Classical Conditioning

By Watson; Process of associative learning by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that's been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that produces the desired response

Operant Conditioning

By Skinner; Process of learning where the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased or decreased as a result of reward or punishment that follows

Behavioral Therapy

Attempt to change behavior through the deliberate use of rewards/punishments

Social Learning Theory

Emphasizes the ways in which individuals learn by observing others and through the application of social rewards and punishments

Observational Learning

Way of learning by observing others

Cognitive-Developmental Theory

Emphasizes qualitative changes in the ways individuals think as they mature

Sensorimotor Stage (Piaget)

Birth to 2 years; infants learn by relating sensation to motor action

Pre-Operational Stage (Piaget)

2 to 7 years; children acquire a mental storehouse of images and symbols, especially spoken and written words

Concrete Operational Stage (Piaget)

7 to 11 years; children make giant strides in their ability to organize ideas and think logically - logical reasoning is limited to real objects and actual experiences/events

Formal Operational Stage (Piaget)

11 years; children develop the ability to apply logical reasoning to abstract phenomena


Child's attempt to fit new information into their existing way of thinking


Child's adaptation of an existing way of thinking in response to new information

Ecological Perspective

Emphasizes proximal and distant contexts in which development occurs

Socio-Cultural Perspective

Stresses the ways in which development involves adaptation to specific cultural demands

Behavioral Genetics

Study of inherited behavior

Evolutionary Perspective

Emphasizes the evolved basis of human behavior

Dynamic Systems Theory

Views the many facets of development as part of a single, dynamic, constantly changing system


Repetition of a study using the same methods

Cohort Effect

Influence of the fact that people of different ages grew up in different eras and had different experiences

Cross-Sectional Study

Comparing individuals of different ages at the same time

Principles of Development

1. Nature v. Nurture

2. Throughout life-span

3. Multi layered context

4. Dynamic, reciprocal process

5. Cumulative


Interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and to make predictions

Psycho-Sexual Stages

1. Anal (feces)

2. Oral (mouth)

3. Phallic (masturbation)

4. Latency (no sexual activity)

5. Genital (P/V sexual intercourse)

Freud's Iceberg Theory

Id - (youngest) Immediate gratification

Ego - (middle) How can I get what I want?

Superego - (matured) Should I be doing this?

Instincts : Reality : Morality

Repression (Defense Mechanism)

Aggressive thoughts about parents who have mistreated you

Denial (Defense Mechanism)

Denying that texting and driving can kill you, but you still do it anyways

Sublimation (Defense Mechanism)

Going for a run when you're angry

Repression (Defense Mechanism)

Subconsciously holding negative memories and experiences in your subconscious where you don't have to think about them


Blaming someone/thing else for your negative thoughts/feelings/experiences


Shifting your anger from one object/person to another

Social Learning Theory

By Bandura; Behavior that is learned from the environment and observational learning

Longitudinal Studies

Assessing one age group over an extended period of time

Cross-Sectional Designs

Assessing different age groups at just one point in time

Longitudinal-Sequential Designs

Several (children) age groups studied over a multi-layered period of time


Shows the relationship between variables; NOT cause and effect

3 Kinds of Observational Research

1. Naturalistic: everyday situations/people watching/no interaction

2. Participant: research will interact (a bit) with participants

3. Structured: laboratory or experiment

Evaluating Quantitative v. Qualitative Data

Quantitative: Reliability, Validity and Generalize-ability

Qualitative: Transfer-ability, Credibility and Dependability

Quantitative v. Qualitative Data

Quantitative: Standardized Tests, Systematic Observation and Self-Report Surveys

Qualitative: Interview Studies, Narrative Studies and Ethnographics

Steps of the Scientific Method

1. Question

2. Hypothesis

3. Conduct Study

4. Analyze Data

5. Make Findings Public


By Skinner; Belief that psychology should be scientific and supported by empirical data

Discovery Learning

Idea that children do their best through exploration and hands-on experiences


When certain concepts in life should be introduced and taught

Psycho-Social Stages

1. Trust v. Mistrust

2. Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt

3. Initiative v. Guilt

4. Industry v. Inferiority

5. Identity v. Role Confusion

6. Intimacy v. Isolation

7. Generativity v. Stagnation

8. Integrity v. Despair

3 Components of Cognitive Development

1. Equilibration: Force that drives development (which happens in leaps and bounds)

2. Assimilation: Using existing schema to deal with new situation(s)

3. Accommodation: Existing schema must be changed to fit new situation(s)


Building blocks of knowledge

Research Ethics

1. Non-Harmful Procedure

2. Informed Consent

3. Confidentiality

4. Debriefing

5. Implications

6. Misconduct

Reinforcement Schedules in Operant Conditioning (By Skinner)

1. Continuous Reinforcement

2. Fixed Ratio Reinforcement

3. Fixed Interval Reinforcement

4. Variable Ratio Reinforcement

5. Variable Interval Reinforcement

Ecological Model

Micro (inner circle): family

Meso (second circle): social-cultural environment

Exo (third circle): human-built environment

Macro (outer circle): society

By Bronfrenbrenner


Degree to which different traits are influenced by genetic factors


1. Failure to conceive after 12 months of attempting without birth control methods

2. 2 million couples experience this annually

3. Often treatable

4. 3 factors: health of couple, lifestyle and age

A Healthy Pregnancy...

1. Begins before conception

2. Fetus is vulnerable in the first trimester (woman may not know she is pregnant)

Well-being in First Trimester (Factors)

1. Age

2. Diet and Nutrition

3. Stress

4. Teratogens (environmental and other)

5. Diseases

6. Medications

Waiting/Estimating a Due Date

1. Best guess is 40 weeks and 5 days since last missed period

2. Due month

3. Maturity of the baby's lungs may release a hormone that induces labor


The "love" hormone

Births can take place in many locations and methods...

Locations: home, hospital, birth center

Methods: C-section, medicated, unmediated, surgical, assisted

Apgar Test

1. Taken every 1 and 5 minutes

2. Measures appearance, pulse, grimace, activity and respiration (1-10 score)

What is the average cost (in total) of raising a child?


We can measure...

Physical development

When do we as humans grow the fastest?

During the first year of our lives

Fine motor skills...

Gross motor skills...

Which one is more applicable to babies?


Rolling, walking, crawling, throwing things

Gross Motor Skills

What is important for a baby's "growth energy"?

Touch, feeling safe and nurtured, using a sing-song voice

Cognitive Development in Infancy

1. understands "no" and "get your shoes"

2. remembers past events

(i.e. "the stove is hot")

3. understands that certain things go together

Object Permanence

Knowing that an object still exists even though it is hidden - infants have not developed object permanence