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105 Cards in this Set

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B – Political Parties
Chapter 21 Questions (pg. 853):

1. Providing a label that helps voters identify those seeking office is an important function of?
A – State Convention
2. In the state of Texas, the highest level of temporary party organization is the?
D – 1990’s
3. In Texas, the Republican Party became the dominant party in the?
C – General Election
4. The first Tuesday following the first Monday in November of even-numbered years is the day for which election?
D – Closed Primary
5. Officially, Texas has a?
C - Distinguished
6. Which of the following is not a type of election found in Texas?
A – Income and Education
7. The 2 most important factors in determining whether someone will vote are?
D - Media
8. The most costly item for most political campaigns is?
Chapter 21 Vocabulary (pg. 854):

1. Closed Primary (pg. 839)
A primary election in which voters can participate in the nomination of candidates, but only of the party in which they are enrolled for a period of time prior to the primary day.
2. County Chair (pg. 828)
The county party official, who heads the county executive committee.
3. County Convention (pg. 828)
A meeting held by a political party following its precinct conventions, for the purpose of electing delegates to its state convention.
4. County Executive Committee (pg. 828)
Responsible for Running County’s Primary Elections and Planning County Conventions.

The party group, made up of a party’s county chair and precinct chairs, which is responsible for running a county’s primary elections and planning county conventions.
5. Early Registration (pg. 842)
The requirement that a voter register long before the general election; in effect in Texas until 1971.
6. Early Voting (pg. 846)
A procedure that allows voters to cast ballots during the 2-week period before the regularly scheduled election date.
7. General Election (pg. 839)
A decisive election that determines who is elected to office.
8. Motor Voter Law (pg. 844)
A national act, passed in 1993, which requires states to allow people to register to vote when applying for a driver’s license.
9. Open Primary (pg. 839)
A primary election in which the voter can wait until the day of the primary to choose which party to enroll in to select candidates for the general election.
10. Poll Tax (pg. 841)
A state-imposed tax on voters as a prerequisite for registration. ____ ___ were made unconstitutional in national elections by the 24th amendment, and in state elections by the Supreme Court in 1966.
11. Precinct (pg. 828)
A local voting district.
12. Precinct Chair (pg. 828)
Heads the Precinct Convention and Serve on the Party’s County Executive Committee

The local party official, elected in the party’s primary election, who heads the precinct convention and serves on the party’s county executive committee.
13. Precinct Convention (pg. 829)
A meeting held by a political party to select delegates for the county convention and to submit resolutions to the party’s state platform; ________ ___________ are held on the day of the party’s primary election and are open to anyone who voted in that election.
14. Presidential Republicanism (pg. 830)
A voting pattern in which conservatives vote Democratic for state offices, but Republican for presidential candidates.
15. Primary Elections (pg. 839)
Elections held to select a party’s candidate for the general election.
16. Runoff Primary (pg. 839)
Where no candidate received a majority, a second primary election is held between the 2 candidates who received the most votes in the 1st primary election.
17. Shivercrat Movement (pg. 830)
Movement led by Allan Shivers, Texas’ Governor in the 1950’s, where Conservative Democrats in Texas supported Republican candidates for Office, as they felt the National Democrat Party was too Liberal.

A movement, led by the Texas governor Allan Shivers during the 1950’s, in which conservative Democrats in Texas supported Republican candidates for office because many of them believed that the national Democratic Party had become too liberal.
18. Special Election (pg. 840)
An election that is not held on a regularly scheduled basis; in Texas a _______ ________ is called to fill a vacancy in office, to give approval for the state government to borrow money, or to ratify amendments to the Texas Constitution.
19. State Chair and Vice Chair (pg. 828)
The top 2 state-level leaders in the party.
20. State Convention (pg. 828)
Party Meeting held every 2 Years, Nominates Candidates for Statewide Office, Adopting a Platform, Electing Party’s Leadership; in Presidential election years, Selects Delegates for National Convention and chooses Presidential Electors

A party meeting held every 2 years for the purpose of nominating candidates for statewide office, adopting a platform, electing the party’s leadership, and in presidential election years selecting delegates for the national convention and choosing presidential electors.
21. State Executive Committee (pg. 828)
The committee responsible for governing a party’s activities throughout the state.
22. White Primary (pg. 842)
Primary election in which only white voters are eligible to participate.
D – Maintaining a Heterogeneous Membership
Chapter 22 Questions (pg. 875):

1. The goals of interest groups include:
B – Was a group of extremely wealthy Texans who met in Suite 8F of the Lamar Hotel in Houston and controlled Texas politics for more than 40 years.
2. The “8F Crowd”:
D – Committee Assignments
3. Interest groups supply public officials with:
A – Bundling
4. When PACS combine small contributions from many people to form one large contribution it is called?
D – Access to Politicians
5. The most important thing interest groups need to be effective is?
A – Professional Group
6. Trial lawyers are which type of interest group?
D – Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branches
7. Lobbying takes place in the?
C – Raise money from individuals, which is then bundled and given to candidates.
8. PAC’s are used to?
A – To get out the vote.
9. One of the most important grassroots tactics of interest groups is?
C - Business
10. In Texas, the most powerful interest groups represent which interests?
Chapter 22 Vocabulary (pg. 875):

1. Bundling (pg. 861)
The interest-group practice of combining campaign contributions from several individuals into one larger contribution from the group, so as to increase the group’s impact on the candidate.
2. Interest Group (pg. 859)
Individuals who organize to influence the government’s programs and policies.
3. Issue Advocacy (pg. 868)
Independent spending by individuals or interest groups on a campaign issue but not directly tied to a particular candidate.
4. Lobbyist (pg. 862)
An individual employed by an interest group who tries to influence governmental decisions on behalf of that group.
5. Political Action Committee (PAC) (pg. 867)
A private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns.
B – Council of Government
Chapter 26 Questions (pg. 990)

1. What is not a type of local government found in Texas?
C – A County Commissioner Court
2. The basic governing body of a county is known as?
A - Sheriff
3. Which county officials are responsible for the jail and the safety of the prisoners?
C – Avery v. Midland County
4. Each county commissioner’s precinct must be equal in population according to?
B – General Law and Home Rule
5. The two legal classifications of Texas cities are?
D – Strong Mayor-Council Form of City Government
6. The form of city government that allows the mayor to establish control over most of the city’s government is called the?
B – 5,000
7. To adopt a home-rule charter, a city must have a minimum population of?
A – Special District
8. Which local government provides a single service not provided by any other local government?
A – School and Nonschool
9. What are the 2 types of special districts found in Texas?
B – Council of Government
10. Comprehensive planning and service delivery in a specific geographic area is the function of a?
Chapter 26 Vocabulary (pg. 991):

1. At-Large Election (pg. 979)
An election in which officials are selected by voters of the entire geographical area, rather than from smaller districts within that area.
2. City Controller (pg. 980)
The chief financial officer of a city.
3. Commissioner form of Government (pg. 978)
A form of city government in which the city is run by a small group of elected commissioners who act in both legislative and executive capacities.
4. Constable (pg. 972)
Precinct-level county official involved with serving legal papers and, in some counties, enforcing the law.
5. Council-Manager form of Government (pg. 979)
A form of city government in which public policies are developed by the city council and executive and administrative functions are assigned to a professional city manager.
6. Council of Government (COG) (pg. 988)
A regional planning board composed of local elected officials and some private citizens from the same area.
7. County Attorney (pg. 975)
County official who prosecutes lesser criminal cases in the county court.
8. County Auditor (pg. 975)
Public official, appointed by the district judges, who receives and disburses county funds; in large counties, this official also prepares the county budget.
9. County Clerk (pg. 975)
Public official who is the main record-keeper of the county.
10. County Commissioner (pg. 970)
Government official (4 per county) on the county commissioners court whose main duty is the construction and maintenance of roads and bridges.
11. County Commissioners Court (pg. 970)
The main governing body of each county; has the authority to set the county tax rate and budget.
12. County Judge (pg. 970)
The person in each of Texas’s 254 counties who presides over the county court and county commissioners court, with responsibility for the administration of county government; some _______ ______ carry out judicial responsibilities.
13. County Tax Assessor-Collector (pg. 975)
Public official who maintains the county tax records and collects the taxes owed to the county.
14. District Attorney (pg. 975)
Public official who prosecutes the more serious criminal cases in the district court.
15. District Clerk (pg. 975)
Public official who is the main record-keeper of the district court.
16. Hidden Government (pg. 986)
A term that refers to special districts of which many citizens are unaware.
17. Home-Rule Charter (pg. 977)
The rules under which a city operates.
18. Mayor-Council form of Government (pg. 978)
A form of city government in which the mayor is the chief executive and the city council is the legislative body; in the strong mayor-council variation, the mayor’s powers enable him or her to control executive departments and the agenda of the city council; in the weak mayor-council variation, the mayor’s power is more limited.
19. Municipal Utility District (MUD) (pg. 983)
A special district that offers services such as electricity, water, sewage, and sanitation outside the city limits.
20. Nonschool Special District (pg. 983)
Any special district other than a school district; examples include municipal utility districts (MUDs) and hospital districts.
21. Property Tax (pg. 985)
A tax based on an assessment of the value of one’s property, which is used to fund the services provided by local governments, such as education.
22. School District (pg. 983)
A specific type of special district that provides public education in a designated area.
23. Single-Member District (pg. 978)
An electorate that is allowed to select only one representative from each district.
24. Special District (pg. 982)
A unit of local government that performs a single service, such as education or sanitation, within a limited geographical area.
25. User Fee (pg. 985)
A fee paid for public goods and services, such as water or sewage service.
B – It is also a low-service state.
Chapter 27 Questions (pg. 1027):

1. One result of the low taxes in Texas is that?
A – Severely limits the budgetary process.
2. The Texas Constitution:
D – General Sales Tax
3. What is the major source of tax revenue for the state?
B – Public and Higher Education
4. The most costly item in the Texas budget is?
C – Is often overcrowded, fails to rehabilitate prisoners, and is subject to rising costs.
5. The Texas prison system?
B – Lock up some prisoners, then lock up some more prisoners, and build more prisons if necessary.
6. What best describes corrections policy in Texas?
A – The state and local school boards.
7. Public education in Texas is jointly controlled by?
C – No Pass, No Play
8. What is not one of the 3 most important education policy issues of the last 50 years?
A – The New Deal programs from the 1930’s have been expanded.
9. What statement is true about welfare policy in Texas?
Chapter 27 Vocabulary (pg. 1028):

1. Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) (pg. 1020)
A federally and state-financed program for children living with parents or relatives who fell below state standards of need. Replaced in 1996 by TANF.
2. Appropriations (pg. 996)
The amounts of money approved by the state legislature in statutes that each unit or agency of government can spend.
3. Biennial (pg. 996)
Occurring every 2 years.
4. Comptroller of Public Accounts (pg. 996)
Elected state official who directs the collection of taxes and other revenues.
5. Debt Service (pg. 997)
The amount of a budget spent by a government on paying interest on its debt.
6. Dedicated Funds (pg. 996)
A portion of the state budget that is dedicated to mandatory spending on programs such as health care for the poor.
7. De Facto (pg. 1012)
Literally, “by fact”; practices that occur even when there is no legal enforcement, such as school segregation in much of the United States today.
8. Equal Protection Clause (pg. 1013)
Provision of the 14th amendment guaranteeing citizens “the equal protection of the laws.” This clause has been the basis for the civil rights of African Americans, women, and other groups.
9. Gilmer-Aiken Laws (pg. 1011)
Education reform legislation passed in 1949 that supplemental local funding of education with state monies, raised teachers’ salaries, mandated a minimum length for the school year, and provided more state supervision of public education.
10. Matching Funds (pg. 1002)
Federal monies given to a state to match the state’s funding on a joint program.
11. Medicaid (pg. 1021)
A federally and state-financed, state-operated program providing medical services to low-income people.
12. New Deal (pg. 1020)
President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1930’s program to stimulate the national economy and provide relief to victims of the Great Depression.
13. Pay-as-you-go Limit (pg. 996)
A rule in the Texas Constitution that requires the state to balance its budget.
14. Progressive/Regressive Taxation (pg. 1001)
Taxation that hits upper income brackets more heavily (progressive) or lower income brackets more heavily (regressive).
15. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) (pg. 1024)
A federal block grant that replaced the AFDC program in 1996.
16. Waiver (pg. 1023)
An exemption from a federal requirement.