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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Understanding Public Opinion

Public Opinion
Citizens’ attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events.
Values (Beliefs)
Basic principles that shape a person’s opinions about political issues and events.
Political Ideology
A cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the role of government.
Equality of Opportunity
All People Have the Freedom to Reach Their Fullest Potential

A widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential.
America's Political Values
A person's basic orientation to politics, in America liberty, equality, and democracy are core.

Basic principles that shape a person's opinions about political issues and events (a person's basic orientation to politics.)
Marketplace of Ideas
The public forum in which beliefs and ideas are exchanged and compete.
1. The Family
2. Membership in Social Groups
3. Education
4. Prevailing Political Conditions
Formation of Political Values

Name the 4
Shaping of Public Opinion
An individual's opinions on particular issues, events, and personalities of the beliefs and orientations that form their political ideology.
Measuring Public Opinion

Public Opinion Polls
Scientific instruments for measuring public opinion.
Pollster Method where they Poll a Citizen Who Shares the Same Beliefs of a Large Group of People.

A small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population.
Selection Bias
Polling Error when the Sample is Inaccurate

Polling error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population being studied, which creates errors in overrepresenting or underrepresenting some opinions.
Sample Size and Margin of Error
Polling error that arises based on the small size of the sample.
Push Polling
A polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent’s opinion.
Salient Interest
Attitudes and views that are especially important to the individual holding them.
Illusion of Saliency
The impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when actually it is not.
Bandwagon Effect
Opinions Shift to Front-Runner

A shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public opinion polls report as the front-runner.
Determining the validity of a poll.
The validity of the poll is determined by the sampling procedure used. The 2 most popular are Random Digit Dialing and Probability Sampling. Selection Bias, Sampling Error, and Measurement Error all factor in to inaccurate information being collected.
1. Broadcast Media (Radio and Television)
2. Print Media (Newspapers and Magazines)
3. The Internet (Ever Increasing)
Chapter 7 - The Media

Types of Media (Name 3)
1. Broadcast Media rely on newspapers to set their news agenda.
2. They tend to provide more detailed and complete information.
3. It is the prime source of news for educated and influential individuals.
Name 3 reasons that the print media is the most important source of news:
Unlike other countries who control or own the media, here they regulate the content and ownership of the broadcast media; print media is mostly free from being regulated.
Controls or regulations concerning the media:
1. Equal Time Rule
2. The Right of Rebuttal
3. The Fairness Doctrine
4. The Communications Decency Act, which tried to limit sexually-explicit material to those younger than 18, but was ruled by the Supreme Court that it was an infringement on free speech.
Federal Communications Commission regulations concerning the broadcast media (name 4):
Major factors involving news coverage
1. The Journalists, or Producers of the news
2. The Sources or Topics of the news
3. The Audience for the news
Sources of media power
Agenda Setting, Framing, and Priming
Agenda Setting
Media Sway of Population due to its Power to Interpret and Report an Issue.

The power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems.
The power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted.
Swaying the Public’s Opinion by Media Coverage Affecting the Public’s view of Political Leaders, Issues, and Events

Process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or political actor.
Political Participation
Wide Range of Activities Used to Influence the Government

Political activities, such as voting, contacting political officials, volunteering for a campaign, or participating in a protest, whose purpose is to influence government.
1. Voting
2. Protest and Rioting
3. Contacting Public Officials
4. Sign Petitions
5. Attend Public Meetings
6. Join Public Meetings or Join Organizations
7. Give Money to a Politician or Political Organization
8. Volunteer in a Campaign
9. Write a Letter to the Editor or an Article about an Issue
Forms of Political Participation (Name 5)
Affirmative Action, Welfare Reform, Abortion, The Gender Gap, the Political Mobilization of Religious Groups, and the Rise and Fall of Minority Voting Districts are some conflicts that plague the participation of groups who vote, explaining some of why we have such a low voter turnout (around 50%).
Under the voting rights of various groups and who participates. (Women, African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, Religious Identity, and age participation).
Chapter 9 Political Parties

Political Parties
Organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices.
Two-Party System
A political system in which only 2 parties have a realistic opportunity to compete effectively for control.
Internal Mobilization
Occurs when political conflicts break out and government officials and competing factions seek to mobilize popular support.
External Mobilization
Occurs when a group of politicians outside government organizes popular support to win governmental power.
Electoral Realignment
Points of Transition Between Party Systems in American History

The point in history when a new party supplants the ruling party, becoming in turn the dominant political force. In the U.S., this has tended to occur roughly every 30 years.
Divided Government
Presidency is Controlled by One Party, while the Other Party Controls One or Both Houses of Congress

The condition in American government wherein the presidency is controlled by one party while the opposing party controls one or both houses of Congress.
Single Member District
Electorate is Allowed to Select 1 Representative from Each District (Normal Method of Representation in the U.S.)

An electorate that is allowed to select only one representative from each district; the normal method of representation in the U.S.
Multiple Member District
In Other Nations, Several Individuals can be Elected to Represent Each Legislative District (Weaker Parties have Better Chance of Winning Seats)

An electorate that selects all candidates at large from the whole district; each voter is given the number of votes equivalent to the number of seats to be filled.
Plurality System
Single-Member District, has the Effect of Setting a High Threshold for Victory Depending on the Amount of Participating Parties

A type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate need only receive the most votes in the election, not necessarily a majority of votes cast.
Proportional Representation
A System Allowing each Political Party Representation in Proportion to its Percentage of the Total Vote

A multiple-member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the total vote.
Chapter 10 Campaigns and Elections

Midterm Elections
Refer to study guide to get all information needed to know/study for test

Congressional elections that do not coincide with a presidential election; also called off-year elections.
Primary Elections
Elections held to select a party’s candidate for the general election.
Closed Primary
Primary Election which Voters can Participate in the Nomination of Candidates, of the Party which they are Enrolled in Prior to Primary Day

A primary election in which voters can participate in the nomination of candidates, but only of the party in which they are enrolled for a period of time prior to primary day.
Open Primary
A primary election in which the voter can wait until the day of the primary to choose which party to enroll in to select candidates for the general election.
Caucus - Open/Closed
Open - A presidential nominating caucus open to anyone who wishes to attend.

Closed - Primary Election which Voters can Participate in the Nomination of Candidates, of the Party which they are Enrolled in Prior to Primary Day

A primary election in which voters can participate in the nomination of candidates, but only of the party in which they are enrolled for a period of time prior to primary day.
Referring a Measure Proposed or Passed by Legislature Voted by the Electorate to Approve or Reject It

The practice of referring a measure proposed or passed by a legislature to the vote of the electorate for approval or rejection.
Majority System
Type of Electoral System where Candidates must Receive a Majority of All the Votes Cast in the Relevant District in to Win a Seat in Parliament or Representative Body

A type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate must receive a majority of all the votes cast in the relevant district.
Process of Redrawing Election Districts and Redistributing Legislative Representatives, Every 10 years to Reflect Population Shifts

The process of redrawing election districts and redistributing legislative representatives. This happens every 10 years to reflect shifts in population or in response to legal challenges in existing districts.
Apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party.
A candidate running for re-election to a position that he or she already holds.
Town Meeting
A media format in which candidates meet with ordinary citizens, that allows them to deliver messages without the presence of journalists or commentators.
The Convention (National and ?)
Party’s Most Important Institution, Held every 24 Years, Delegates from Each State Attend, As a Group they: Nominate Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates, Draft the Party’s Campaign for Presidential Race, and Approve Changes in the Rules and Regulations of Party Procedures

A national party political institution that nominates the party’s presidential and vice presidential candidates, establishes party rules, and writes and ratifies the party’s platform.
Political activists selected to vote at a party’s national convention.
Party Platform
A party document, written at a national convention, that contains party philosophy, principles, and positions on issues.
1. Partisan Loyalty
2. Issues and Policy Concerns
3. Candidate Characteristics
Name the 3 ways voters decide:
Max $2,300 per candidate per election.
$5,000 per PAC per calendar year.
$28,500 per national party committee per calendar year.
1. Individual Donors
A private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns.
2. Political Action Committees (PAC)
In Buckley v. Valeo, the Supreme Court ruled that the right of individuals to spend their own money to campaign is constitutionally protected.
The Candidates
527 Committees - Nonprofit Independent Groups that Receive and Disburse Funds Influencing the Nomination, Election, or Defeat of Candidates; Named after Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code

501C(4) Committees - Nonprofit groups that also engage in issue advocacy. Under Section 501c(4) such a group may spend up to half its revenue for political purposes.
527 and 501C(4)
A national party committee may make unlimited "independent expenditures" advocating support for its own presidential candidate or advocating the defeat or the opposing party's candidate so long as these expenditures are not coordinated with the candidate's own campaign. A national party committee may also spend up to $19 million in coordination with its candidates' campaign even if its candidate has accepted public funding.
5. Political Parties
6. Public Funding
Electoral College
Refer to study guide:

The Presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president (indirect election of President).
The Presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president. (Indirect election of president)

The size of the Electoral College is equal to the total membership of both Houses of Congress (435 Representatives and 100 Senators) plus the three electors allocated to the District of Colombia, (Washington D.C.), totaling 538 electors. Each state selects their allocated electors according to state law.
Describe the Electoral College:
Chapter 11 Groups and Interests

The theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government. The outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation.
Interest Group
Individuals who organize to influence the government’s programs and policies.
1. Business and Agricultural Groups
2. Labor Groups
3. Professional Associations
4. Public Interest Groups
5. Ideological Groups
6. Public-Sector Groups
Name 6 interests that are represented by Interest Groups:
The 1st Party System:
Emerged in the 1790's
The ______ represented mainly New England merchants and supported protective tariffs to encourage manufacturing, assumption of the states' Revolutionary War debts, creation of a National bank, and ties with Britain.
They passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, but was impossible to enforce.
The 1st Party System:
How did the Federalists try to keep the "other" party from criticising the government?
The election of 1800, Jefferson (Rep) defeated John Adams (Fed) for president. After, the Federalists weakened, and eventually disappeared after pro-British sympathies of some of their leaders during the War of 1812 led to charges of treason.
The 1st Party System:
What factors played a role in the collapse of the Federalists?
The Jeffersonian Republicans
The 1st Party System:
The ______ led by southern agricultural interests, opposed these policies and supported free trade, promotion of agricultural over commercial interests, and friendship with France.
The 1st Party System:
What did the Jeffersonian Republicans eventually become known as?
Between the supporters and opponents of Andrew Jackson, who was denied presidency in 1824 by his opponents, but won in 1828 and 1832.
The 1st Party System:
What caused division in the Jeffersonian Republicans (the only political party at the time)?
Supported in the South and West, he made a free trade program to appeal to these regions.
In 1830, groups who opposed him united to form the Whig Party.
The 1st Party System:
Where was Andrew Jacksons base of support and what caused the party to split? What was the name of the new party, what year?
They eliminated property restrictions and other barriers to voting.
The 2nd Party System:
How did the Democrats and Whigs aim to build their support?
Revolved around personalities than policies.
The 2nd Party System:
What was the main issues of conflicts between the 2 parties?
Northeast than the South and West, and among the merchants than the small farmers.
The 2nd Party System:
Where was the main base of support of the Whig party, among which groups?
1840, General William Henry Harrison "Old Tippecanoe"
The Whig party couldn't agree on issues, so they relied on entertainment and food and especially drink to win voters.
The 2nd Party System:
Who was the Whigs 1st president, and what caused issues among the Whigs?
Slavery effected both parties, and by 1856, the Whig Party ended under the strain. These old Whigs and anti-slavery Democrats joined together to create the Republican Party, which planned to ban slavery from the western territories.
The 2nd Party System:
What issue divided both parties (Whigs and Democrats) and what was the result?
Abraham Lincoln
His victory strengthened southern calls for secession from the Union and soon Civil War.
The 2nd Party System:
Who was the 1st Republican President, and what major even occured and why?
Raise troops, provide funding, and maintain popular support for the Civil War as the succession of the South reduced the Democratic Party of many of its leaders and supporters.
The Civil War/Post Civil War Party System:
During the Civil War, Lincoln depended on Republican governors and state legislatures to do what?
War weariness on the northern public.
The War ended in 1865.
The Civil War/Post Civil War Party System:
Why did the Democrats almost win the presidential election of 1864, and when did the Civil War end?
A Republican bastion through a program of Reconstruction that enfranchised the newly freed slaves.
The Civil War/Post Civil War Party System:
After the War, what did some of the congressional Republicans try to convert the South to, under what program?
The program collapsed in the 1870's as a result of disagreements within the Republican Party in Congress and violent resistance to Reconstruction by southern whites.
With the collapse of the program, the South (former Confederates) regained full membership in the Union and full control of internal affairs.
The Civil War/Post Civil War Party System:
What was the outcome of the Reconstruction program and what happened to the south?
The South was Democratic with support from working-class and immigrant groups, and were basically on an even playing field with the Republicans.
The Republicans were supported by the North with strong support from strong business and middle-class.
The Civil War/Post Civil War Party System:
What was the political party structure and support after the Civil War?
Variety of protest parties
Populist Party, South and West, among small farmers western mining interests, and urban workers
The System of 1896:
During the 1890's, rapid social and economic changes led to the emergence of what? What was the name of the most popular, and with whom?
In the 1892 presidential election, the Party carried 4 states and elected governors in 8. In 1896, the Party merged with the Democrats, and the Republicans won the election.
The System of 1896:
What happened to the Populist Party?
For the next 36 years, the Republicans were the nation's majority party, winning 7 out of 9 presidential elections and controlling the Congress in 15 of 18 contests.
The System of 1896:
What was the outcome for the Republicans after winning this election?
It was the party of American businesses, advocating low taxes, high tariffs on imports, and minimum government regulation. The Democrats were too weak to offer much opposition, and were focused in the South on the race issue.
The System of 1896:
Why were the Republicans so popular?
Republican Herbert Hoover, The Great Depression, millions of Americans didn't feel as if the Republicans did enough to promote economic recovery.
The New Deal Party System:
Who won the presidential election in 1928, what happened soon after, and what was the outcome?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)
The New Deal was his program for economic recovery, in which the national government increased substantially. The gov't took responsibility for economic management and social welfare beyond anything in the past.
The New Deal Party System:
Who was the Democratic president elected in 1932, and what is the "New Deal"?
He designed many of his programs to expand the political base of the Democrats. He rebuilt the party around unionized workers, upper-middle-class intellectuals and professionals, southern farmers, Jews, Catholics, and African Americans which revitalized the Democrats, which helped make them the dominant party for the next 36 years. This is when the social security program formed.
The New Deal Party System:
What other effects did the New Deal have? For the Democratic Party?
The New Deal was severely strained during the 1960's by conflicts over civil rights and the Vietnam War. Civil rights divided northern Dems who supported it from white southern Dems who didn't.
The New Deal Party System:
What happened in the 1960's and how did it effect the New Deal?
Civil Rights Movement launched a campaign in the North aimed at securing jobs and education and end racial discrimination in things such as housing. Northern Dems split along income lines. The struggle over the Vietnam War further divided the Dems, allowing Richard Nixon and the Republicans (aka GOP) take over again.
The New Deal Party System:
What factors caused the Democratic Party to weaken, and who was the Republican president that led into the next phase of party system (the contemporary system)?
The Republicans adopted the ideas of Barry Goldwater, author of "Conscience of a Conservative", which argued for the reduced levels of taxation and spending, less government regulation of the economy, and the elimination of many federal social programs; Goldwater was the presidential candidate in 1964, but lost to LBJ.
The Contemporary American Party System:
In the 1960's how did the Republicans (GOP) reassert themselves as a genuine alternative to the Democrats?
He used the "southern strategy" which appealed to white southerners, and with the help of George Wallace, his running-mate, he was able to win over all of the former states of the confederacy.
The Contemporary American Party System:
What did Richard Nixon use to influence voters to end Democratic dominance?
Religious Conservatives, who were offended by Democratic support for abortion and gay rights, as well as Democratic disdain for traditional cultural and religious values.
Also Working-Class whites who were drawn to Reagon's tough approach to foreign policy as well as his positions against affirmative action.
The Contemporary American Party System:
During the 1980's, Ronald Reagon was able to win over which 2 groups of people, who helped the Republicans dominate once again?
Majority of Unionized Workers and Upper-Middle Class intellectuals and professionals, and Racial Minorities, which the 1965 Voting Rights Act greatlty increased black voter participation in the South and helped the Democrats retain seats in Congress.
The Contemporary American Party System:
What 3 groups of people did the Democrats appeal to during this time of Republican reign?
Americans concerned with abortion rights, gay rights, feminism, environmentalism, and other progressive social causes.
The Contemporary American Party System:
In addition to these groups, who else did the Democrats reach out and appeal to?
In order to influence the policy process, you can go about it in different ways. One way is to go through lobbyists, who have built networks of personal relationships and behind-the-scenes services that they are able to perform for lawmakers. Which can allow them to ensure clients they have access to the most important officials who will hear them out.
Interest groups also have influence in the legislative agenda.
Lobbyists often testify for their clients at congressional committees and agency hearings. They talk to reporters, place ads in newspapers, and organize letter-writing and e-mail campaigns. They also are important in fund-raising, helping to direct clients' contributions to members of Congress and presidential candidates.
Lobbying Congress
Only powerful lobbyists who are highly skilled and best connected can hope to influence the president.
Lobbying the President
Even if a bill is passed by Congress and signed by the president, the implimentation of the law is not guaranteed. Lobbyists continue to contact both the executive and legislative branches on a regular basis.
The Administrative Procedure Act, 1946, requires most federal agencies to provide notice and opportunity for comment before implementing proposed new rules and regulations.
In 1990, Congress enacted the Negotiated Rulemaking Act to encourage administrative agencies to engage in direct and open negotiations with affected interests when developing new regulations.
These 2 legislations have played an important role in opening the bureaucratic process to interst group influence. "Stakeholders" are affected intersts who are consulted when attempting to implement a new rule.
Lobbying the Executive Branch
Iron Triangle
The stable, cooperative relationship that often develops among a congressional committee, an administrative agency, and one or more supportive interest groups.
Attempt to Use the Courts to Achieve a Goal

A lawsuit or legal proceeding; as a form of political participation, an attempt to seek relief in a court of law.
Mobilizing Public Opinion
Campaign Activism
Values are basic principles that shape a person’s opinions about political issues and events.

Political Ideology is a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the role of government.
Essay Question 1
What is the difference between a value and an ideology?
Liberalism: supports political and social reform, extensive government intervention in the economy, the expansion of federal social services, and more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women, as well as greater concern for consumers and the environment.

Conservative: support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulae and economic arrangements; they believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens' freedoms, oppose the expansion of governmental activity, asserting that solutions to social and economic problems can be developed in the private sector; they oppose efforts to impose gov't regulation on business as it is frequently economically inefficient and costly and can ultimately lower the entire nation's standard of living.
Essay Question 1
Describe some of the characteristics and beliefs that define both liberalism and conservatism in contemporary American politics.
Similarities - Both claim the importance of individual rights, they just go about it differently. Both also believe in the power of centralized government, again, they just go about them differently. Is the opposite of liberal a conservative? No, the opposite is tyranny, or absolute dictatorship, such as totalitarian and communist countries. The opposite of conservative is anarchy, which is no laws, complete chaos, and the absence of political structure. Neither wants tyranny or anarchy, and both want a say in matters and to be heard. Both are independent and don't want to be told what to do.

Differences - Out of Liberty, Equality, and Freedom, Liberals value Equality more, and Conservatives value Liberty more, There are many more differences between Liberals and Conservatives than similarities, but especially today, many Liberals and Conservatives are split on many issues, and these views and values are what the majority believes. Liberals want more gov't power, Conservatives want less; Liberals want less military presence in other countries matters, Conservatives support military presence; Liberals are pro-choice, Conservatives are pro-life; Liberals don't believe in God and want God taken out of as much as possible, while Conservatives believe in God are are Christian; Liberals want to spend more money in order to create more jobs, but Conservatives want the gov't to spend less and let the economy stabilize and try to reduce the debt;
Essay Question 1
What are the main differences between these 2 ideologies in terms of their emphasis on core American values? What are their points of agreement?
Poor - Poll Tax, Literacy Tests and Residency Requirements

Women - The 19th amendment passed in 1920 granted women the right to vote, which passed through the efforts of the Women's Suffrage Movement or "Suffragists." President Hoover and Congress felt that if women were granted the right to vote, they would be more supportive in WWI, Canada and Great Britain also for this same reason.

Racial Minorities - Blacks won the right to vote in the 15th amendment, established in 1870, which prohibited denial of the right to vote on the basis of race, although it didn't last long in the Confederate States. The "Jim Crow" system of racial segregation established in the 1880's by states in the former Confederacy, formed laws which made it impossible for most blacks to vote; including poll taxes, literacy tests, and residency requirements. In 1965 the Voting Rights Act was passed, in which the federal gov't registered voters in states that discriminated against minority citizens.
Essay Question 2:
What are some of the formal barriers to suffrage that have existed in American politics over the years to prevent the poor, women, and racial minorities from exercising the franchise?
The 19th amendment passed in 1920 granted women the right to vote, which passed through the efforts of the Women's Suffrage Movement or "Suffragists." President Hoover and Congress felt that if women were granted the right to vote, they would be more supportive in WWI, Canada and Great Britain also for this same reason.

Blacks won the right to vote in the 15th amendment, established in 1870, which prohibited denial of the right to vote on the basis of race, although it didn't last long in the Confederate states. In 1965 the Voting Rights Act was passed, in which the federal gov't registered voters in states that discriminated against minority citizens.
Essay Question 2:
What specifically were the remedies that expanded the right to vote for American citizens?
The US doesn't own or control the media, yet they do regulate it. Print Media is mostly free from gov't interference, and is one of the most important branches of Media. Broadcast Media is regulated by the FCC, established in 1934. Radio and TV have licences that need to be renewed every 5 years. They try to limit, yet not too strictly, sexually explicit and excretory references between 6am and 10pm, the hours children are most likely to be awake.
Essay Question 3:
Despite wide freedoms, the press must still adhere to some federal laws. How does government regulate the media?
The Equal Time Rule (candidates have equal time), Right of Rebuttal (individuals have the right to defend themselves from personal attacks), and Fairness Doctrine (when controversial issues are aired, this gives opposing views equal time to express their views, but in 1985 this stopped being enforced) are all ways in which the broadcast media are regulated through the FCC. There are so many Radio and TV broadcasts that it is impossible to monitor and regulate all of them.
Essay Question 3:
Describe some of the different regulations that the government places upon the media. What are the goals of different regulatory techniques? Are they affective?
Newspapers are the least regulated. The Internet was trying to be regulated by the Communicatinos Decency Act, which would make illegal "indecent" sexual material accessible to those under 18. This went to the Supreme Court where they ruled that this is protected under free speech, a 1st amendment right.
Essay Question 3:
Which forms of news are the least regulated? How has the government attempted to regulate the Internet?