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178 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The beliefs and attitudes that people have about issues.
Chapter 6:
Practice Quiz (pg. 244):

1. The term public opinion is used to describe:
Often create differences of political opinion in America
2. Variables such as income, education, race, gender, and ethnicity:
The family, social groups, education
3. Which of the following is an agency of socialization?
The gender gap
4. When men and women respond differently to issues of public policy, they are demonstrating an example of:
Political Socialization
5. The process by which Americans learn political beliefs and values is called?
Political knowledge and the influence of political leaders, private groups, and the media.
6. In addition to one’s basic political values, what other two factors influence one’s political opinions?
The Constitution
7. What is not an important external influence on how political opinions are formed?
8. What is the term used in public opinion polling to denote the small group representing the opinions of the whole population?
An illusion of saliency.
9. When politicians, pollsters, journalists, or social scientists assume something is important to the public when in fact it is not, they are creating:
Polling results influence people to support the candidate marked as the probable victor in a campaign.
10. A familiar polling problem is the “bandwagon effect,” which occurs when?
Chapter 6:
Vocabulary (pg. 244):

1. Agencies of Socialization (pg. 210) –
Political Beliefs and Values

The induction of individuals into the political culture; learning the underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is based.
2. Attitude (or Opinion) (pg. 207) –
A specific preference on a particular issue.
3. Bandwagon Effect (pg. 239) –
Opinions Shift to Front-Runner

A shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public opinion polls report as the front-runner.
4. Conservative (pg. 219) –
Large Government Poses Threat to Freedom

Today this term refers to those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulae and economic arrangements. They believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens’ freedom.
5. Democracy (pg. 207) –
Citizens are Significant in Governmental Process (Voting)

A system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public officials.
6. Equality of Opportunity (pg. 207) –
All People Have the Freedom to Reach Their Fullest Potential

A widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential.
7. Gender Gap (pg. 211) –
Voting Pattern Differences of Women and Men

A distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men.
8. Illusion of Saliency (pg. 237) –
The impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when actually it is not.
9. Liberal (pg. 219) –
Support Government Expansion in Matters

Today this term refers to those who generally support social and political reform; extensive governmental intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; and greater concern for consumers and the environment.
10. Liberty (pg. 207) –
Freedom from governmental control.
11. Marketplace of Ideas (pg. 226) –
The public forum in which beliefs and ideas are exchanged and compete.
12. Measurement Error (pg. 233) –
Wording of Survey Questions Badly in which Public Opinions are Not Conveyed Accurately

Failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions.
13. Political Efficacy (pg. 225) –
The ability to influence government and politics.
14. Political Ideology (pg. 207) –
A cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the role of government.
15. Political Socialization (pg. 210) –
Citizens Learning and Formulating Values on the Political System

The induction of individuals into the political culture; learning the underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is based.
16. Probability Sampling (pg. 231) –
Pollsters Method in Selection of Citizens to be Polled Randomly

A method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent.
17. Public Opinion (pg. 207) –
Citizens’ attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events.
18. Public-Opinion Polls (pg. 231) –
Scientific instruments for measuring public opinion.
19. Push Polling (pg. 235) –
A polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent’s opinion.
20. Random Digit Dialing (pg. 232) –
Polling through Random Selection of Telephone Numbers

A polling method in which respondents are selected at random from a list of ten-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample.
21. Salient Interests (pg. 237) –
Attitudes and views that are especially important to the individual holding them.
22. Sample (pg. 231) –
Pollster Method where they Poll a Citizen Who Shares the Same Beliefs of a Large Group of People.

A small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population.
23. Sampling Error (or Margin of Error) (pg. 233) –
Polling error that arises based on the small size of the sample.
24. Selection Bias (pg. 232) –
Polling Error when the Sample is Inaccurate

Polling error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population being studied, which creates errors in overrepresenting or underrepresenting some opinions.
25. Values (or Beliefs) (pg. 207) –
Basic principles that shape a person’s opinions about political issues and events.
The wave of mergers and consolidations following the passage of the 1996 Telecommunications Act.
Chapter 7
Practice Quiz (pg. 280):

1. Which of the following trends in ownership of the media has influenced the nationalization of the news?
Nationalized and Centralized
2. What best describes national news in the United States?
Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union
3. What Supreme Court case overruled the government’s attempt to regulate the content of the Internet?
The Equal Time Rule and The Fairness Doctrine
4. Which 2 principles affect the political content of radio and television broadcasts?
Reporters, Political Actors, and News Consumers
5. What has an impact on the nature of media coverage of politics?
6. What is a strategy available to poor people to increase their coverage by the news media?
Agenda Setting and Framing
7. The media’s powers to determine what becomes a part of the political discussion and to shape how the American people interpret political events are known as?
Internet Chat Rooms
8. What can be considered an example of a news enclave?
None of the above, including: Talk Radio Programs, The Wall Street Journal, or The American Spectator
9. What exemplifies the liberal bias in the news media?
The Spanish-American War
10. The newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst was responsible for encouraging U.S. involvement in which war?
Chapter 7
Vocabulary (pg. 281):

1. Agenda Setting (pg. 267) –
Media Sway of Population due to its Power to Interpret and Report an Issue.

The power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems.
2. Equal Time Rule (pg. 255) –
Equal Airtime Requirement for Politicians Running for Office

The requirement that broadcasters provide candidates for the same political office equal opportunities to communicate their messages to the public.
3. Fairness Doctrine (pg. 255) –
Ending in 1985, an FCC Requirement for Broadcasters who Aired Controversial Issues to Provide Time for Opposing Views

A Federal Communications Commission requirement for broadcasters who air programs on controversial issues to provide time for opposing views. The FCC ceased enforcing this doctrine in 1985.
4. Framing (pg. 268) –
The power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted.
5. Priming (pg. 271) –
Swaying the Public’s Opinion by Media Coverage Affecting the Public’s view of Political Leaders, Issues, and Events

Process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or political actor.
6. Right of Rebuttal (pg. 255) –
Requires that Individuals be Given Opportunity to Respond to Personal Attacks made in TV and Radio.

A Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulation giving individuals the right to have the opportunity to respond to personal attacks made on a radio or television broadcast.
7. Sound Bites (pg. 249) –
Brief Quotes and Short Characterizations of the Day’s Events

Short snippets of information aimed at dramatizing a story rather than explaining its substantive meaning. (Used by politicians and other news makers seeking to manipulate the news by providing their own.)
Watching the news on television.
Chapter 8
Practice Quiz (pg. 317):

1. What is not a form of political participation?
2. What is the most common form of political participation?
Landowning white males over the age of 21.
3. What describes the electorate in the U.S. prior to the 1820’s?
1920; 19th
4. Women won the right to vote in ____________ with the adoption of the ______________ Amendment.
Elementary School, High School, and Election Campaigns
5. Civic education takes place during:
Registration Requirements and Weak Parties
6. What negatively affects voter turnout in the U.S.?
The mobilization of people by political institutions.
7. Of all the factors explaining political participation, which is the most important?
Poll Taxes and White Primaries
8. What is an example of obstacles to political participation for African Americans?
Declined Somewhat
9. After passage of the Motor Voter Act in 1993, participation in the 1996 elections?
All of the above: Wealthier, Whiter, and More Educated
10. Americans who do vote tend to be _____________ than the population as a whole.
Chapter 8
Vocabulary (pg. 317):

1. American Political Community (pg. 291) –
Citizens who are eligible to vote and who participate in American political life.
2. Civic Engagement (pg. 305) –
Concern about Public Issues, and if a Citizen Feels they can make a Difference (Participation)

A sense of concern among members of the political community about public, social, and political life, expressed through participation in social and political organizations.
3. Gender Gap (pg. 298) –
Voting Behavior Differences between Women and Men

A distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men.
4. Litigation (pg. 287) –
Attempt to Use the Courts to Achieve a Goal

A lawsuit or legal proceeding; as a form of political participation, an attempt to seek relief in a court of law.
5. Lobbying (pg. 286) –
Groups or Individuals Efforts taking their Case Directly to Elected or Appointed Officials

A strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature.
6. Mobilization (pg. 309) –
The process by which large numbers of people are organized for a political activity.
7. Political Participation (pg. 285) –
Wide Range of Activities Used to Influence the Government

Political activities, such as voting, contacting political officials, volunteering for a campaign, or participating in a protest, whose purpose is to influence government.
8. Poll Tax (pg. 290) –
Tax on Voters Required for Voting Registration; Supreme Court made Unconstitutional with the 24th Amendment in 1966

A state-imposed tax on voters as a prerequisite for registration. The Supreme Court rendered poll taxes unconstitutional in national elections by the 24th Amendment, and in state elections in 1966.
9. Protest (pg. 287) –
Assembling Crowds to Confront the Government or other Official Organization

Participation that involves assembling crowds to confront a government or other official organization.
10. Public Relations (pg. 286) –
Effort to Sway Public Opinion of an Issue or Cause

An attempt, usually through the use of paid consultants, to establish a favorable relationship with the public and influence its political opinions.
11. Socioeconomic Status (pg. 303) –
Status in society based on level of education, income, and occupational prestige.
12. Suffrage (pg. 288) –
The right to vote; also called franchise.
13. Turnout (pg. 290) –
The percentage of eligible individuals who actually vote.
Seeks to control the entire government by electing its members to office and thereby controlling the government's personnel.
Chapter 9
Practice Quiz (pg. 361):

1. A political Party is different from an interest group in that a political party:
Electoral Realignments
2. The periodic episodes in American history in which a “new” dominant political party replaces an “old” dominant political party are called?
Machine Politics
3. Through which mechanism did party leaders in the late 19th and early 20th centuries maintain their control?
All of the above: National, State, and County
4. On what level are U.S. political parties organized?
Determine the party's rules and platforms.
5. Contemporary national party conventions are important because they:
6. Which party was founded as a political expression of the antislavery movement?
When large numbers of voters permanently shift their support from one party to another.
7. Historically, when do realignments occur?
Recruiting and nominating candidates for office.
8. Parties today are most important in the electoral process in:
They select leaders, e.g., Speaker of the House, and They assign members to committees
9. What role do parties play in Congress?
All of the above: Encourage Electoral Competition, Promote Voter Turnout, and Make governance possible by organizing elected leaders into governing coalitions.
10. Parties are important to democracy because they:
Chapter 9
Vocabulary (pg. 361):

1. Caucus (Political) (pg. 335) –
Committee Members (Political) are Elected at Normally Closed Local Party Meetings

Normally closed meetings of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plans strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters.
2. Divided Government (pg. 331) –
Presidency is Controlled by One Party, while the Other Party Controls One or Both Houses of Congress

The condition in American government wherein the presidency is controlled by one party while the opposing party controls one or both houses of Congress.
3. Electoral Realignment (pg. 330) –
Points of Transition Between Party Systems in American History

The point in history when a new party supplants the ruling party, becoming in turn the dominant political force. In the U.S., this has tended to occur roughly every 30 years.
4. 527 Committees (pg. 338) –
Provides Tax-Exempt Status for Nonprofit Political Advocacy Groups who Disburse Funds to Influence Elections, Named after Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code

Nonprofit independent groups that receive and disburse funds to influence the nomination, election, or defeat of candidates. Named after Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code, which defines and grants tax-exempts status to nonprofit advocacy groups.
5. Gender Gap (pg. 343) –
Voting Behavior Differences between Women and Men

A distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men.
6. Machines (pg. 340) –
Strong Party Organizations led by “Bosses” who Strongly Influenced Politics

Strong party organizations in late-19th-century American cities and a few states. These machines were led by “bosses” who controlled party nominations and patronage.
7. Majority Party (pg. 350) –
Party who Controls Either House of Congress (Holds More Seats)

The party that holds the majority of legislative seats in either the House or the Senate.
8. Minority Party (pg. 350) –
Party who Doesn’t Control Either House of Congress (Holds Less Seats)

The party that holds a minority of legislative seats in either the House or the Senate.
9. Multiple-Member District (pg. 335) –
In Other Nations, Several Individuals can be Elected to Represent Each Legislative District (Weaker Parties have Better Chance of Winning Seats)

An electorate that selects all candidates at large from the whole district; each voter is given the number of votes equivalent to the number of seats to be filled.
10. National Convention (pg. 335) –
Party’s Most Important Institution, Held every 24 Years, Delegates from Each State Attend, As a Group they: Nominate Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates, Draft the Party’s Campaign for Presidential Race, and Approve Changes in the Rules and Regulations of Party Procedures

A national party political institution that nominates the party’s presidential and vice presidential candidates, establishes party rules, and writes and ratifies the party’s platform.
11. Nomination (pg. 348) –
The process through which political parties select their candidates for election to public office.
12. Party Activists (pg. 342) –
Citizens who Participate in Supporting their Party and Candidates

Partisans who contribute time, energy, and effort to support their party and its candidates.
13. Party Identification (pg. 341) –
An individual voter’s psychological ties to one party or another.
14. Party Organization (pg. 335) –
Formal Structure of Political Party, Usually Committees Made up of Active Party Members

The formal structure of a political party, including its leadership, election committees, active members, and paid staff.
15. Patronage (pg. 340) –
Power to Control Government Jobs and to Approve Grants, Licenses, or Special Favors to Supporters

The resources available to higher officials, usually opportunities to make partisan appointments to offices and to confer grants, licenses, or special favors to supporters.
16. Platform (pg. 337) –
A party document, written at a national convention, that contains party philosophy, principles, and positions on issues.
17. Plurality System (pg. 335) –
Single-Member District, has the Effect of Setting a High Threshold for Victory Depending on the Amount of Participating Parties

A type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate need only receive the most votes in the election, not necessarily a majority of votes cast.
18. Policy Entrepreneur (pg. 350) –
An individual who identifies a problem as a political issue and brings a policy proposal into the political agenda.
19. Political Parties (pg. 321) –
Organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices.
20. Proportional Representation (pg. 335) –
A System Allowing each Political Party Representation in Proportion to its Percentage of the Total Vote

A multiple-member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the total vote.
21. Responsible Party Government (pg. 358) –
Political Parties the Mobilized Voters and were Sufficiently Well Organized to Develop and Implement Programs and Policies after the Election

A set of principles that idealizes a strong role for parties in defining their stance on issues, mobilizing voters, and fulfilling their campaign promises once in office.
22. Single-Member District (pg. 335) –
Electorate is Allowed to Select 1 Representative from Each District (Normal Method of Representation in the U.S.)

An electorate that is allowed to select only one representative from each district; the normal method of representation in the U.S.
23. Soft Money (pg. 341) –
Money contributed directly to political parties for political activities that are not regulated by federal campaign spending laws.
24. Third Parties (pg. 332) –
Parties that organize to compete against the 2 major American political parties.
25. Two-Party System (pg. 322) –
A political system in which only 2 parties have a realistic opportunity to compete effectively for control.
The latter (authoritarian) do not allow the defeat of those in power.
Chapter 10
Practice Quiz (pg. 415)

1. What is the most important difference between democratic and authoritarian electoral systems?
Vote for a split-ticket.
2. The neutral ballot made it possible for voters to:
In closed primaries, only registered members of a political party may vote to select that party's candidates.
3. What is the difference between an open and a closed primary?
All of the above: General election chances may be undermined, Party extremists may win the nomination, and Typical party supporters may refuse to support the party's nominee.
4. What are the potential consequences of ideological struggles in primary contests?
They no longer nominate presidential candidates.
5. What was the most fundamental change in national conventions in the 20th century?
The Spot Advertisement
6. What is not an example of a media technique introduced in the 1992 presidential campaign?
The right of individuals to spend their own money to campaign is constitutionally protected.
7. In Buckley v. Valeo, the Supreme Court ruled that:
Is often handed down from parents to children.
8. Partisan loyalty:
The electoral system used to determine the winner.
9. What is not a factor that influences voters’ decisions?
10. If a state has 10 members in the U.S. House of Representatives, how many electoral votes does that state have?
Chapter 10

1. Benign Gerrymandering (pg. 368) –
Attempt to Draw District Boundaries to Create Districts that Under Represent Minorities

Attempts to draw district boundaries so as to create districts made up primarily of disadvantaged or underrepresented minorities.
2. Campaign (pg. 373) –
Effort by Political Candidates and Staffs to Win Backing of Donors, Political Activists, and Voters to Win Political Office

An effort by political candidates and their staffs to win the backing of donors, political activists, and voters in the quest for political office.
3. Caucus (Political) (pg. 377) –
Normally closed meetings of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters.
4. Closed Caucus (pg. 377) –
Presidential nominating caucuses open only to registered party members.
5. Closed Primary (pg. 365) –
Primary Election which Voters can Participate in the Nomination of Candidates, of the Party which they are Enrolled in Prior to Primary Day

A primary election in which voters can participate in the nomination of candidates, but only of the party in which they are enrolled for a period of time prior to primary day.
6. Coattail Effect (pg. 369) –
Result of Voters Casting Ballot for President or Governor and Automatically Voting for the Rest of the Party’s Ticket

The result of voters casting their ballot for president or governor and “automatically” voting for the remainder of the party’s ticket.
7. Delegates (pg. 381) –
Political activists selected to vote at a party’s national convention.
8. Electoral College (pg. 371) –
The presidential electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president.
9. 501c(4) Committees (pg. 407) –
Nonprofit groups that also engage in issue advocacy. Under Section 501c(4) such a group may spend up to half its revenue for political purposes.
10. 527 Committees (pg. 407) –
Nonprofit Independent Groups that Receive and Disburse Funds Influencing the Nomination, Election, or Defeat of Candidates; Named after Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code

Nonprofit independent groups that receive and disburse funds to influence the nomination, election, or defeat of candidates. Named after Section 527 of the Internal Revenue Code, which defines and provides tax-exempt status for nonprofit advocacy groups.
11. Gerrymandering (pg. 368) –
Apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party.
12. Incumbent (pg. 373) –
A candidate running for re-election to a position that he or she already holds.
13. Majority System (pg. 366) –
Type of Electoral System where Candidates must Receive a Majority of All the Votes Cast in the Relevant District in to Win a Seat in Parliament or Representative Body

A type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate must receive a majority of all the votes cast in the relevant district.
14. Majority-Minority District (pg. 369) –
A gerrymandered voting district that improves the chances of minority candidates by making selected minority groups the majority within the district.
15. Midterm Elections (pg. 365) –
Congressional elections that do not coincide with a presidential election; also called off-year elections.
16. Open Caucus (pg. 377) –
A presidential nominating caucus open to anyone who wishes to attend.
17. Open Primary (pg. 365) –
A primary election in which the voter can wait until the day of the primary to choose which party to enroll in to select candidates for the general election.
18. Platform (pg. 379) –
A party document, written at a national convention, that contains party philosophy, principles, and positions on issues.
19. Plurality System (pg. 366) –
The Candidate with the Most Votes Wins

A type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate need only receive the most votes in the election, not necessarily a majority of votes cast.
20. Political Action Committee (PAC) (pg. 406) –
A private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns.
21. Primary Elections (pg. 365) –
Elections held to select a party’s candidate for the general election.
22. Proportional Representation (pg. 366) –
A multiple-member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the total vote.
23. Prospective Voting (pg. 391) –
Voting based on the imagined future performance of a candidate.
24. Recall (pg. 366) –
Procedure to allow voters an opportunity to remove state officials from office before their terms expire.
25. Redistricting (pg. 367) –
Process of Redrawing Election Districts and Redistributing Legislative Representatives, Every 10 years to Reflect Population Shifts

The process of redrawing election districts and redistributing legislative representatives. This happens every 10 years to reflect shifts in population or in response to legal challenges in existing districts.
26. Referendum (pg. 366) –
Referring a Measure Proposed or Passed by Legislature Voted by the Electorate to Approve or Reject It

The practice of referring a measure proposed or passed by a legislature to the vote of the electorate for approval or rejection.
27. Retrospective Voting (pg. 391) –
Voting based on the past performance of a candidate.
28. Spot Advertisement (pg. 384) –
A 15, 30, or 60 second TV campaign commercial that permits a candidate’s message to be delivered to a target audience.
29. Superdelegate (pg. 381) –
A convention delegate position, in Democratic conventions, reserved for party officials.
30. Town Meeting (pg. 385) –
A media format in which candidates meet with ordinary citizens, that allows them to deliver messages without the presence of journalists or commentators.
31. Winner-Take-All System (pg. 377) –
A system in which all of a state’s presidential nominating delegates are awarded to the candidate who wins the most votes, while runners-up receive no delegates.
Chapter 11
Practice Quiz (pg. 451)

1. The theory that competition among organized interests will produce balance with all the interests regulating one another is:
Provide Selective Benefits
2. To overcome the free-rider problem, groups:
Purposive Benefits
3. Politically organized religious groups often make use of:
It is respected and feared.
4. What best describes the reputation of the AARP in the Washington community?
Public-Interest Groups
5. Which types of interest groups are most often associated with the New Politics movement?
An Iron Triangle
6. Access politics, exemplified by defense contractors acting in concern with congressional committees and executive agencies, is an example of:
All of the above: Filing Amicus Briefs, Bringing Lawsuits, and Financing Those Filing Suit
7. In which of the following ways do interest groups use the courts to affect public policy?
8. According to this text, what is the limit a PAC can contribute to a primary or general election campaign?
Starting their own political party.
9. What is not an activity in which interest groups frequently engage?
Chapter 11

1. Collective Goods (pg. 424) –
Benefits, sought by groups, which are broadly available and cannot be denied to nonmembers.
2. Free Riders (pg. 424) –
Those who enjoy the benefits of collective goods but did not participate in acquiring them.
3. Grassroots Mobilization (pg. 439) –
A lobbying campaign in which a group mobilizes its membership to contact government officials in support of the group’s position.
4. Informational Benefits (pg. 424) –
Special newsletters, periodicals, training programs, conferences, and other information provided to members of groups to entice others to join.
5. Institutional Advertising (pg. 438) –
Advertising designed to create a positive image of an organization.
6. Interest Group (pg. 419) –
Individuals who organize to influence the government’s programs and policies.
7. Iron Triangle (pg. 436) –
The stable, cooperative relationship that often develops among a congressional committee, an administrative agency, and one or more supportive interest groups.
8. Issue Network (pg. 436) –
A loose network of elected leaders, public officials, activists, and interest groups drawn together by a specific policy issue.
9. Lobbying (pg. 431) –
A strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature.
10. Material Benefits (pg. 425) –
Special goods, services, or money provided to members of groups to entice others to join.
11. Membership Association (pg. 423) –
An organized group in which members actually play a substantial role, sitting on committees and engaging in group projects.
12. New Politics Movement (pg. 429) –
A political movement that began in the 1960’s and 1970’s made up of professionals and intellectuals for whom the civil rights and antiwar movements were formative experiences. The New Politics movement strengthened public interest groups.
13. Pluralism (pg. 419) –
The theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government. The outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation.
14. Political Action Committee (PAC)(pg. 442) –
A private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns.
15. Public Interest Groups (pg. 429) –
Groups that claim they serve the general good rather than only their own particular interest.
16. Purposive Benefits (pg. 425) –
Selective benefits of group membership that emphasize the purpose and accomplishments of the group.
17. Solidary Benefits (pg. 425) –
Selective benefits of group membership that emphasize friendship, networking, and consciousness raising.
18. Staff Organization (pg. 424) –
A type of membership group in which a professional staff conducts most of the group’s activities.