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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a reservoir?
Any place on the earth that stores water. Natural reservoirs include oceans, rivers, groundwater, glaciers, the atmosphere and biosphere. p. 402
This is 99.96% of all water on the earth.
What is salt water?
What does the 'hyrdrologic cycle' do and how does it relate to 'residence time'?
The hydrologic cycle models the movement of water from one reservoir to another (means and amount). By knowing the flux and reservoir size, one can determine residence time, the amount of time a molecule spends in each reservoir.
What drives the 'hyrdologic cycle'?
The hyrdologic cycle is driven by solar energy.
What is the 'latent heat of vaporization'?
The amount of heat required to turn water into vapor. Note: The same amount of energy is released when vapor condenses back into water.
What is the general correlation between energy consumption/release and phase changes in water?
As energy is consumed (ice -> water -> vapor), therefore, as energy is released (vapor->water-> ice).
What is ground water?
That part of the subsurface water that is in the zone of saturation. Ground water occupies the spaces between minerals and rock fragments.
What is porosity (in terms of its relation to ground water)?
Defines the amount of water a volume a rock can hold. Porosity increases with increased sorting. It is INDEPENDENT of grain size. Varies from 1-60%.
Describe permeability.
Defines the resistance to the movement of a fluid, and is controlled by the pore size and connectivity.Permeability decreases with decreasing grain size, porosity, and sorting.
Give an example of a rock with high porosity/permeability and low porosity/permeability.
High: Gravel
Low: Unfractured shale
What does the water table define?
The water table defines the border between the saturated and unsaturated zone. Also defined as where the pressure head of the water is equal to atmospheric pressure.
How does groundwater "move"?
It can be moved by a gravity and pressure difference along a 'head gradient'. Groundwater will always move from a high head to a low head, not necessarily from high elevation to low elevation(i.e. downhill).
How can the water table be 'recharged'?/How can the water table be lowered(discharge)?
Recharging can occur after storm events as water travels through the unsaturated zone and raises the water table. Increased evaporation or withdrawal pumping lowers the water table(discharge). The zone where the water table drops from pumping is called a 'drawdown'.
1.What are aquifers? 2.Aquitards? 3. Confined and unconfined Aquifers?
1. Aquifer: Rock sufficiently permeable to allow the conduction of groundwater.
2. Aquitards are confining beds that retard but do not prevent the flow of water to or from an aquifer.
3. Unconfined have an upper and lower boundary defined by the water table. Confined (artesian) have an upper limit that is a confining layer (some impermeable rock probably).
Where do springs form?
They form whenever the land surface intersects the water table. Therefore, their flow rate is a function of the water table's gradient (elevation/distance).
What is a perched aquifer?
It's basically a mini aquifer above another aquifer. Picture in presentation shows it best.
What is a karst aquifer and what common rock type readily has them?
Aquifers that form from rocks that are soft enough to dissolve and form caverns. Limestone often creates karst aquifers. Sink holes are the result of karts that have caved in.
What does it mean if an aquifer is being 'mined'?
It means the pumping has exceeded the recharge rate. The resource will eventually be depleted.
Describe turbulent vs. laminar fluid flow. Which type carries more sediments? Are faster and deeper streams usually turbulent or laminar?
Laminar: Flow lines are parallel and do not mix.
Turbulent: Flow lines cross and mix chaotically. Most rivers and streams are turbulent. Turbulent flows carry more sediment than laminar flows and are usually created in deeper, faster streams.
Sediment Transport: Suspended Load/Bed (traction) Load/ Saltation.
Suspended: fine grained, carried by suspension due to turbulence.
Bed Load: coarser grained stuff, rolls and slides along the bottom.
Saltation:(spanish saltar - to jump) sediment transported by intermittent jumps. This is the transition between bed and sediment modes.
valley, Channel, Flood Plain.
Valley the entire area from ridge to ridge. Channel is the area actually occupied by a stream. Flood plane are the areas on either side of the channel that flood when the channel overflows.
Where is the fastest flow on a meander?
The fastest flow is on the outside. The slower inside flow results in deposition (a point bar).
How are deltas created?
When a river enters a static body of water and sediment is deposited as the velocity decreases.
What is deflection (with respect to winds)?
Process by which strong winds gradually lower the elevation of the ground by removing dry sand and finer grained particles.
What is desert pavement?
A surface of gravel too large for wind to transport, concentrated by the selective removal of finer grained sediment.
Transverse dunes?
Oriented normal to prevailing unidirectional winds. Form in arid regions with abundant sands.
Linear dunes?
Parallel to prevailing wind direction. Long and straight. Because of their orientation WITH the wind, they grow much larger in size than transverse dunes.
Crescent shaped dunes?
Form in areas of limited sand supply and unidirectional winds. Move downwind over a flat surface of pebbles or bedrock.
Is desert weathering primarily physical or chemical? What is the result of chemical weathering in desert environments?
Primarily physical. Some chemical: mostly the oxidation of mafic minerals. This results in a 'desert varnish', a mixture of clays and iron/manganese oxides.
What factors contributed to the dust bowl of the 1930s?
Extended drought. Over-grazing. Over-plowing. Use of sod as a building material.
What is loess?
Wind blown dust deposits.
What are 'playas' and how do they relate to evaporites?
Deserts usually have poor drainage systems and so, after rainfall, the rain will remain deposited in land depressions forming lakes. These lakes then evaporate leaving a bed of salt deposits (evaporites). These dry lake beds are called playas.
What causes ocean tides?
Ocean tides are the result of the sun and moon's gravitational pull on the ocean. These can be classified as solar or lunar tides.
Explain spring tides and neap tides.
Spring tides: the sun and moon are aligned (so their gravitational pulls are working together).
Neap: The moon is 90 degrees from the sun. (So the sun is pulling one way and the moon is pulling perpendicular to it.)
Why are the waves on Lake Travis smaller than those on the coast?
Wave height increases with increasing wind speed, duration, and distance over which the wind blows.
What is a beach and what three zones can they be broken into?
The area along the coast that is affected by waves. Zones are offshore, foreshore, and backshore.
What factors affect the eustatic sea level?
The volume of the ice caps (as they melt the sea level rises), and temperature (water expands as it heats up).
Mid-Atlantic Ridge? Rift valley? Fracture Zone?
A high elevation region in the vicinity of a rift valley due to hot buoyant rock. Each ridge segment is separated by a fracture zone. Site of new seafloor generation by seafloor volcanism. See SLIDES.
What is a glacier?
A body of ice flowing under its own weight and not entirely melting during the summer.
What are the two types of glaciers?
Valley glaciers (alpine glaciers).
Continental glaciers (ice sheets) Continental glaciers may undergo motion via ice streams, controlled by features on their lwer boundary or perimeter.
Describe glacier movement in terms of the two types of glaciers.
Plastic flow is dominant in valley glaciers and results in high erosion.
Basal slip is dominant in thick continental glaciers, lubricated by wet sediments; this type of movement results in less erosion.
What is the snow line?
The elevation above which snow doesn't completely melt in summer.
What is glacial flour?
Large quantities of finely ground rock contained in the glacial melt water.
Does the melting of floating ice cause the sea level to rise?
FUCK NO! It only rises if the melted ice is on land.
What are Cuestas?
Asymmetrical ridges formed in tilted and eroded rocks of different strengths.
What is a hogback?
A narrow ridge formed in steeply dipping or vertical beds of hard strata.
How does acid rain form?
Acid rain forms when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide (both released from the burning of fossil fuels) combine with water vapor to produce sulfuric and nitric acid.
How do chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) destroy the ozone?
Not sure.
What is Davis's Theory of landscape Evolution?
Davis believes that uplift occurs in rapid, short-lived pulses and was followed by a long period of gradual erosion. This gives rise to the concept (now discredited) of landscape stages of "Youth", "Maturity", and "Old Age".
What is Penck's Theory of Landscape Evolution?
Penck believed that uplift gradually increased and decreased over long periods of time, and that erosion acts concurrently to eventually wear down mountains.
What is Hack's Theory of Landscape Evolution?
Hack believed that uplift and erosion rates can be sustained over lond periods of time, resulting in balance, or dynamic equilibrium. Under such conditions, landscapes need not follow a predetermined pattern.
What is maturation?
The breakdown of organic matter into a liquid or gas).
What is a trap?
A reservoir beneath impermeable rocks (often shales)