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497 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A high achiever would most likely attribute failures to
internal, unstable, and controllable factors
According to the research findings of Patterson and his colleagues, parents of aggressive children typically use discipline which is
inconsistent, and often not associated with the child's behavior
Self-absorption is characteristic of the cognitive and information processing style of both ______ and _______ individuals.

What characteristics are most critical for today's leaders, more than for managers?
independent, innovative, and flexible
Amount of variability accounted for
eta squared
Cohen’s d
a measure of the mean difference between two groups.
Test construction concept of shrinkage
validity coefficient shrinks, occurs because of chance factors operating in the original validation sample that are not present in the second sample.

items that have collectively been shown to be a valid way to diagnose a sample of individuals as depressed prove to be less valid when used for a different sample
Child's first words
10-16 months of age
Receptive language ______ productive language throughout stages of speech development
Stages of Speech Development
1. Crying
2. Cooing and Babbling
3. Echolalia and Expressive Jargon
4. Holophrastic speech
5. Telegrahpic speech
6. Rapid growth of vocabulary
7. Grammatically correct sentences
8. Meltalinguistic awareness
Holophrastic speech
baby says first words and uses single words to express sentences or phrases
Telegraphic speech
uses at least two words to form a sentence
Rapid growth of vocabulary usually occurs....
30-36 months
Memory for the rules of logic and inference is part of
semantic memory
A child diagnosed with Attention -Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is most likely to also be diagnosed with
Conduct Disorder
Four current theoretical explanations for the relationship between intensity (i.e., anxiety, arousal, nervousness) and athletic performance:
Inverted-U Theory

Individual Zones of Optimal Function (IZOF) Model

Catastrophe Model

Reversal Theory
Inverted-U Hypothesis
moderate intensity is optimal for all athletes, theorizing as intensity increases from low to moderate levels there is an associated improvement in performance and performance worsens once intensity levels either exceed or fall below this moderate range
Individual Zones of Optimal Function (IZOF) Model
optimal level of intensity may vary, ranging from very low to very high for different individuals, and that a multitude of inter-individual differences exist across athletes and sport settings
Catastrophe Model
physiological arousal is dependent upon the level of cognitive intensity of the individual athlete and that cognitive, somatic and self-confidence aspects exert an interactive three-dimensional influence on performance
Reversal Theory
athlete interprets his or her own intensity levels, whether as positive or negative, influences performance. The theory also suggests for successful performances to occur, athletes must view their own intensity level as positive and that perceptions of intensity are dynamic and constantly changing throughout the course performance.
During the first of structural family therapy’s three steps, ______ and ______ techniques are most useful.
tracking and mimesis
The primary purpose of feedback in the context of organizational development is to
help clients understand the diagnostic information that has been collected
Howard et al.’s (1993) phase model of psychotherapy
occurs in multiple regression equations when predictors are highly correlated.
Howard et al.’s (1993) phase model of psychotherapy

focuses on the client’s subjective well-being and occurs during the first few sessions.
Howard et al.’s (1993) phase model of psychotherapy

focuses on symptom reduction and generally occurs between the 5th and 15th sessions
Howard et al.’s (1993) phase model of psychotherapy

focuses on life functioning gains and emerges more gradually
A therapist who assigns a couple the task of looking for things in their relationship that they would like to continue is most likely using which of the following therapeutic approaches?
Physiological dependence ____ a criterion for Substance Abuse
is not
Rural and urban areas rates of mental disorders...
prevalence rates are not statistically different
In the context of expectancy theory, instrumentality refers to:
the likelihood of performance leading to certain outcomes
Cognitive therapy is _____ effective than insight-oriented therapy and _____ in effectiveness to interpersonal therapy and anti-depressant medication

Implicit memories...
are recalled without conscious effort or awareness
Functional fixedness
tendency to think of objects only in terms of their usual functions
Subjective validation
process of validating words, initials, statements or signs as accurate because one is able to find them personally meaningful and significant
Barnum effect
name given to a type of subjective validation in which a person finds personal meaning in statements that could apply to many people
Forer effect
refers to the tendency of people to rate general statements as highly accurate for them personally
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder


Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
OCPD involves a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control
A baby uses his/her hand to grab a toy and then squeezes it which produces an interesting sound, and this leads to the baby repeating the action. This is an example of what Piaget described as a
secondary circular reaction
Primary circular reactions
center around the baby’s own body and involve simple motor actions like thumb sucking
Secondary circular reactions
are actions involving another person or object and are predominate from 4 to 8 months of age
Tertiary circular reactions
involve seeing what occurs when an original action is varied on an external object
Declarative memory
consists of both 1. episodic memory, past and personally experienced events

and 2. semantic memory, knowledge of the meaning of words and how to apply them.
Protocol analysis
“think aloud” technique

assumes that subjects instructed to verbalize their thoughts in a manner that doesn’t alter the sequence of thoughts mediating the completion of a task, can think-aloud without any systematic changes to their thought process and can therefore be accepted as valid data on thinking
When seeking results that would be sensitive to the _____________ of the test-taker, test-retest reliability would need to be the highest
According to meta-analytic studies of psychotherapy ___________ is the treatment of choice for phobias.
behavior therapy
Ethnic Perspective-Taking Ability (EPTA)

Stage 1
develops between 3 and 4 years, children can begin to describe ethnicity in terms of physical traits
Ethnic Perspective-Taking Ability (EPTA)

Stage 2
occurs between 5 and 9 years, they can accurately apply ethnic labels to themselves and others.
Ethnic Perspective-Taking Ability (EPTA)

Stage 3
from 7-12 years, children express a social perspective of ethnicity, including prejudice
Ethnic Perspective-Taking Ability (EPTA)

Stage 4
10 and 15 years they begin to immerse themselves into their ethnic group
A shortcoming of most curriculum-based suicide prevention programs for adolescents is that
they are based on a stress model of suicide
Albert Bandura, participant modeling increases the client's feelings of _________
Overall, research on the compressed work week suggests that its effects are
increased job satisfaction, with no effect on job performance
Patterson's research on delinquency has shown that the parents of antisocial adolescents are most often
lax and uninvolved
What variable is most strongly related to a preference for therapists of the same racial group in African-American psychotherapy clients?
racial/cultural identification
In computerized adaptive testing, the examinee's previous responses are used to tailor the test to his or her ability. As a result, inaccuracy of scores is _______ across ability levels
To obtain a measure of shared variability, the factor loading is _______
Children from ages one to three are all capable of both ________ and _______ recall of specific events in their lives.

_________ has been theorized to be the result of a lack of schematic organization of experience, a different in way of encoding in early childhood, and, more recently, the importance of language development.
Infantile amnesia
Children’s memory for early events...
changes as it develops over time
True or False,

Each member of a self-directed team has unique, specialized works skills to contribute to the group product.
James Marcia's four identity statuses

Identity foreclosure
characterized by a commitment to an identity (e.g., career) that was defined or suggested by a parent of other significant person.
Legally-defined exceptions to privilege _____ from state to state
Depression is associated with ________ slow-wave or non-REM sleep as well as, early morning waking, _______ sleep continuity and _______ onset of REM sleep or decreased REM latency


Children under the age of 3 years old are _____ to recall events in their lives
Gender concept develops in a predictable sequence of 3 stages
Gender identity
Gender stability
Gender constancy
Gender identity
ability to categorize self and others as male or female, develops as early as 9 months or as late as 3 years
Gender stability
an understanding that one's gender does not change over time, develops by 4 years of age
Gender constancy
an understanding that gender stays the same despite changes in appearance. Gender constancy is achieved by age 5 or 6
_____________ is the legal term which refers to a patient's right to refuse to have information, disclosed in psychotherapy, released in a legal proceeding
Privileged communication
Bipolar I Disorder is differentiated from Bipolar II Disorder by...
one or more Manic or Mixed Episodes
Flexible work schedules have the greatest impact on:
History (is/is not) considered a direct threat to external validity.
is not
Studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy for rheumatoid arthritis indicate
psychological functioning is improved and, in some cases, there is a positive effect on joint inflammation and pain intensity
Interpersonal therapy relates depression to difficulties with ________ and ________________.
social roles

interpersonal relationships
An advantage of using a MANOVA over multiple one-way ANOVAs is that...
the use of a MANOVA reduces the experiment-wise error rate
Miller-Tiedeman and Tiedeman defined personal authoritative reality as ...
what feels right to the individual
Miller-Tiedeman and Tiedeman defined common reality as...
what the individual is told they should do
Reliability coefficient is interpreted ....
According to the Health Belief model, health behaviors such as participation in screening and prevention programs is most related to
the person's perceptions about things such as the threat and severity of illness, the likelihood of treatment success, and the barriers to effective treatment.
Irving Yalom (1985) felt the most important therapeutic factors in groups were:
1. Interpersonal learning
2. cathrasis
3. cohesiveness
Mean square within (or MSW) is a measure of ...
within-group variance
After viewing sexually explicit films, men are more likely to ...
rape, when the films depict sexual coercion by a man over a woman and if the viewer was sure they would not get caught

rate their sexual partners as less attractive

interpret a woman's friendliness as a sexual gesture
Trend analysis is a statistical technique used to determine the trend or _____ that best describes the relationship between two variables.
The best example of a secondary prevention program is ...
crisis intervention
The variable most directly associated with a need for personal space is
cultural background
Differing locus of control and locus of responsibility combinations yield the four worldviews described by Sue and Sue (2003). Mainstream American culture would best be characterized by an:
internal locus of control and internal locus of responsibility
Somatization Disorder has several frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Research indicates that 61% of Somatization Disorder patients have one or more co-occurring ________________.
personality disorders
Self-in-Relation theory is a feminist theory which emphasizes the importance of one's connections with others, particularly a ....
a daughter's relationship with her mother
Glutamate is a neurotransmitter that is associated with .....
cognitive functions, more specifically learning and memory
An agonist or agonistic drug is one that ________ the effects of a neurotransmitter
An antagonist ____________ the effects of a neurotransmitter
blocks or inhibits
_____________ is a logic error that occurs when trying to prove causation, levels of data are mismatched and statistics are applied at one level to infer to data of another level
Ecological fallacy
____________ is a logic error based on circular reasoning, meaning that something is true by definition or the dependent variable is simply a restatement of the independent variable.
____________ is a logic error which explains a phenomenon by saying that it was some spirit or higher power that causes the relationship.
__________ occurs when a researcher reads into the meaning of the content he/she is analyzing to get data rather than simply taking it at face value.
Latent coding
Medications used for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder mostly target
Atrophy of the caudate nucleus is found in:
Huntington's Disease
Ataxia refers most often to lack of ....
muscle coordination
Agnosia is the inability to .....
identify something
Akinesia refers to lack of ....
voluntary motion
A patient displays apraxia, tactile agnosia, difficulties with movement, and confusion between the left and the right side of the body. Which lobe of the person's cerebral cortex is most likely damaged?
More than any other lobe, damage to the _________ lobe has been associated with left-right confusion.
Recent research suggests that the best treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder is .....
cognitive-behavioral therapy
Sensorimotor stage
birth to 2 years

characterized by learning through sensory information and motor activity

Development of object permanence and deferred imitation are the beginning of symbolic thought
Preoperational stage
2 to 7 years

marked by a tremendous increase in symbolic thought and language

Appearance of substitute play and sociodramatic play

Limited by egocentrism (unable to understand others do not have same experiences), which underlies magical thinking and animism

Lack of Conservation , due to centration (focus on one detail) and irreversibilty
Concrete operational stage
7 to 11 years

predominant during the elementary school years

marked by the development of reversibility

decentration, which enables conservation

transitivity, the ability to mentally sort objects

hierarchical classification

Horizontal decalage – sequential mastery of concepts within developmental stage
Formal operational stage
11 to 16 years

begins in early adolescence and is characterized by the ability to abstract, which enables hypothetical-deductive reasoning.
Adaptation involves two complimentary processes:
Assimilation – incorporation of new information about environment into existing schemas

Accommodation – modification of current schemas to account for new information
a state in which we use existing schemas to interpret reality (assimilate), and disequilibrium, a state in which we notice that information doesn’t fit into our current schemas. Disequilibrium forces us to accommodate, as a result we move back to equilibrium
Most of the cognitive development that occurs during the sensorimotor stage, according to Piaget, is the result of...
circular reactions.
Depth perception in infants develops in the following sequence:
kinetic, binocular, pictorial
Severe prenatal malnutrition likely to have differential effects, depending on when in pregnancy it occurs..
First trimester, it can result in congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion

Third trimester (as well as in the first 3-6 months after birth), it is most likely to have a negative effect on the central nervous system -- specifically, the brain. Studies have suggested that these children often have an abnormally low number of brain cells and brain weight.
Reducing a child's aggressive behavior
best approach is to identify the consequences of the behavior and alternatives to it
Erickson’s stages:

Oral-Sensory (Infancy)
Birth – 12/18 months (Infant)

Conflict – Trust vs Mistrust

Important Event – Feeding

Summary – Infant must form first loving, trusting, relationship with caregiver, or develop a sense of mistrust
Erickson’s stages:

Muscular-Anal (Early Childhood)
18 months – 3 years (toddler)

Conflict – Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt

Important Event – Toilet training

Summary - Works to master physical environment while maintaining
Erickson’s stages:

Locomotor (Play Age/Preschooler)
3-6 years Conflict – Initiative vs Guilt

Important Event – Independence

Summary - The child continues to become more assertive and to take more initiative, but may be too forceful, leading to guilt feelings
Erickson’s stages:

Latency (School Age)
6-12 years Conflict – Industry vs. Inferiority

Important Event – School

Summary – The child must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority, failure and incompetence
Erickson’s stages:

12-18 years Conflict – Identity vs. Role confusion

Important Event – Peer relationships

Summary - The teenager must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, sex roles, politics, and religion
Erickson’s stages:

Young Adulthood
19-40 years Conflict – Intimacy vs. Isolation

Important Event – Love Relationships

Summary - The teenager must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, Sex roles, politics, and religion
Erickson’s stages

Middle Adulthood
40-65 years Conflict – Generativity vs. Stagnation

Important Event – Parenting

Summary – Each adult must find some way to satisfy and support the next generation
Erickson’s stages:

65 – Death

Conflict – Ego Integrity vs. Despair

Important Event – Reflection on and acceptance of one’s life

Summary - The culmination is a sense of oneself as one is and of feeling fulfilled
______________ proposes that people need and seek confirmation of their self-concept, regardless of whether their self-concept is positive or negative.
Self Verification theory
Piaget proposed that cognitive abilities develop in a fixed sequence of four stages:
concrete operational
formal operational
Piaget thought that around age ______ children begin to intentionally communicate false statements.
7 or 8
Subsequent research suggests that children as young as age ____ lie intentionally, most often to avoid punishment or obtain a reward.
Dodge and Crick, Cognitive Model of Aggression:
Encoding of social cues

Interpretation of social cues

Response search

Response evaluation

Response enactment
systems theory concept that holds a final state or given outcome may be reached from different initial conditions and in different ways
refers to the phenomenon in which similar initial conditions may lead to different outcomes
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development:

(Self-Focused) up to age 9

1. Morality is obeying rules and avoiding negative consequences. Children in this stage see rules set, typically by parents, as defining moral law.

(Punishment and Obedience orientation)

2. That which satisfies the child’s needs is seen as good and moral.

(Instrumental hedonistic orientation)
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development:

(Other-Focused) age 9 to adolescence

3. Children begin to understand what is expected of them by their parents, teacher, etc. Morality is seen as achieving these expectations.
(Good boy/girl, social relations orientation)

4. Fulfilling obligations as well as following expectations are seen as moral law for children in this stage.
(Authority and social order-maintaining orientation)
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development:

(Higher-Focused) adulthood

5. As adults, we begin to understand that people have different opinions bout morality and that rules and laws vary from group to group and culture to culture. Morality is seen as upholding the values of your group or culture.
(Social contract and individual rights orientation)

6. Understanding your own personal beliefs allow adults to judge themselves and others based upon higher levels of morality. In this stage what is right and wrong is based upon the circumstances surrounding an action. Basics of morality are the foundation with independent thought playing an important role.
(Universal ethical principles orientation)
Rutter, Predictors of Psychopathology
low socioeconomic status
severe marital discord
large family size
parental criminality
placement of children outside the home
Infantile Amnesia
Adults cannot remember anything that occurred prior to age 3
Marcia’s Identity Statuses
Identity Diffusion:
No identity crisis yet
Not committed to an

Identity Foreclosure:
Strong identity
commitment without
identity crisis
Follow one parent

Identity Moratorium:
Having identity crisis
Exploring different options
Skeptical about finding
right one

Identity Achievement:
Resolved identity crisis
Committed to particular
In most patients, the earliest signs of Huntington's disease are ....
depression and forgetfulness
According to Millon, when narcissistic people experience personal failure and public humiliation, they resort to defense mechanisms...
first repression, and if that fails, then rationalization and projection
Current clinical practice indicates that at least 2 to 3 _____ of continuous SSRI use are necessary for the antidepressant effects to manifest in patients
The coefficient of determination indicates
the proportion of variability in one variable that is accounted for by variability in another variable
The Solomon four-group design is:
used to evaluate the effects of pretesting
If data points are widely scattered around a regression line, it would indicate
a low correlation coefficient
scatter is uneven at different points of the continuum
Item response theory ______ be applied in an attempt to develop culture-fair test.
Source misattributions
occur when individuals misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory
occurs when a person perceives the recovery of information from memory as being an original idea of their own
False fame effect
subjects remembered the names but could not recall where they had encountered the names so they concluded that the individuals were famous
Source amnesia
episodic memory disorder where source or contextual information surrounding facts are severely distorted and/or unable to be recalled
The purpose of State Licensing Boards is primarily to
protect the public
Cognex and Aricept are used in the tx of Alzheimer's dementia and are believed to ...
increase ACh levels
Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder
requires the presence of one or more physical complaints that persist for 6 months or longer and which cannot be fully explained by another mental disorder or physical illness.
The most frequent complaints among individuals diagnosed with Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder include
Chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary symptoms
Client-centered case consultation involves ...
working with the consultee to develop a plan to work more effectively with a particular client or clients
Consultee-centered case consultation....
the focus is on the problems of the consultee rather than the client
A multivariate analysis of variance would be used to analyze collected data when:
the study includes two or more dependent variables
Hypnosis is contraindicated in individuals who have
difficulty giving up control, such as obsessive-compulsive patients, or those who have difficulty with basic trust, such as paranoid patients.
Criterion deficiency
refers to what is missed or deficient in the criterion used
Troiden's (1989) model of gay and lesbian identity development

begins before puberty, consists of homosexual feelings or experiences without an understanding of them in terms of self-identity
Troiden's (1989) model of gay and lesbian identity development

Identity Confusion
usually develops in adolescent males around 17 years and in females around 18 when they realize that they may be homosexual.
Troiden's (1989) model of gay and lesbian identity development

Identity assumption
individual comes out as a homosexual – typically from 19–21 years for males and 21–23 for females
Troiden's (1989) model of gay and lesbian identity development

Identity Commitment
characterized by the individual adopting a homosexual lifestyle – which usually occurs from 21–24 years for males and 22–23 for females
All of the following disorders occur more frequently in children with Tourette's Disorder than in the general population
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Learning Disorders
Which of the following concepts was introduced by a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) work group as a diagnostic entity for changes in memory that come with age?
Age-Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI)
For children with Enuresis (Not Due to a General Medical Condition), the most likely co-diagnosis is
Sleepwalking or Sleep Terror Disorder
refers to even scatter around the regression line. Homoscedasticity is actually a good thing
Elaboration Likelihood Model
two routes of communication: a central route and a peripheral route.

A listener is most susceptible to persuasion via the peripheral route when the communicator is appealing (e.g., is of high status), the listener is uninvolved with the message or is distracted, and/or the message appeals to fear.
According to Holland, career choice is optimal when there is a good "fit" between:
personality type and the job environment
In the aversive counterconditioning of a fetish, the fetish object is the:
conditioned stimulus
Cognitive behavior therapy, compared to operant behavior treatments, has been found to be:
approximately equally effective with all types of disorders
An external locus of control and internal locus of responsibility are characteristic of:
a depressed person
The MUM effect
refers to the tendency to keep ‘Mum about Undesirable Messages’
A woman who was in a serious car accident six months ago sees a picture of a car in a newspaper and becomes anxious. This is an example of
mediated generalization
The behavioral technique known as flooding is based on the theoretical principle of
classical extinction
or index cases, are the individuals who are first brought to the attention of the researcher
Covert modeling
learning of new behaviors or the altering of existing behaviors by imagining scenes of others interacting with the environment
Among individuals who are at high-risk for the AIDS virus, ________ about AIDS is a better predictor of less risk-taking behavior than perceived peer norms
Among low-risk groups for the AIDS virus, _____ is the best strategy for detouring high risk behavior.
attempting to engender a group norm of disapproval for high-risk activity
Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

person becomes aware of the stressful situation
Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

summon their resources and meet the challenge
Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

After the trauma is over, they collapse
Avoidant Personality Disorder
The combination of social avoidance, fear of humiliation, and loneliness
Following a stroke involving the MCA (middle cerebral artery), an elderly man experiences weakness and loss of sensation in his left arm and leg. In addition, he exhibits
left visual field loss
Both Sleep Terror Disorder and Sleepwalking Disorder have been linked to
Family History


are associated with amnesia for the episode upon awaking in the morning
Sleepwalking Disorder is usually associated with
low levels of autonomic arousal

and is

characterized by prominent, organized motor activity such as walking around, talking, and eating
On the Halstead-Reitan, the Impairment Index is used as a measure of brain damage and
is derived from the number of subtests on which the examinee scored below the criterion score
Formative evaluations
conducted during the delivery of the intervention to identify ways to improve it
Summative evaluations
are conducted at the end of the intervention to evaluate its effectiveness and participants’ reactions to it
needs analysis
is the first step in developing a training program.
utility analysis
summarizes and identifies key variables that describe the consequences of HR programs
Research on gender differences in judgments of sexual harassment indicate:
men and women are equally as likely to judge a sexually-toned behavior as sexual harassment but only in severe cases.
When using a rating scale, several psychologists agree on the same diagnosis for one patient. This is a sign that the scale is
inability to sit, constantly pacing, restlessness
imperfect articulation of speech
appears to be slow moving, indifferent to stimuli, emotionally constricted
whole body spasm, oculogyric crisis refers to rapid eye movements
The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that occurs after exposure to misleading information. Research on susceptibility and resistance to this effect has found:
warnings about potential misinformation may inhibit its impairing effect
According to family therapists: if the family system changes...
the identified patient will improve
Which of these pairs is most similar?
A. posttraumatic amnesia and retroactive inhibition

B. retrograde amnesia and proactive inhibition

C. anterograde amnesia and proactive inhibition

D. anterograde amnesia and retroactive inhibition
anterograde amnesia and proactive inhibition
Rape Trauma Syndrome

Acute Distress stage
immediately follows the assault and is associated with an acute reaction taking the form of shock, disbelief, and dismay
Rape Trauma Syndrome

Outward Adjustment stage
characterized by denial, suppression or rationalization
Rape Trauma Syndrome

Integration stage
can overlap the others, is the long-term response of striving to come to terms with the assault
Learned helplessness model and depression
depression is associated with an atttributional style whereby negative events are viewed as stable over time rather than transient, global rather than specific, and internal rather than external
Rape Trauma Syndrome Stages
Acute Distress stage
Outward Adjustment stage
Integration stage
Holland's approach to vocational guidance is based on the assumption that:
behavior is a function of personality-environment congruence
In the transtheoretical model, "zero temptation and 100% self-efficacy" is:
the result of complete behavioral change in the termination stage.
Research on gender differences in anxiety has most often found that:
females have more general anxiety than males
characterized by recurrent, intense sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that involve unusual objects, activities, or situations and cause clinically significant distress or impairment in at least one area of functioning
Beta blockers, naltrexone, and naloxone work at a receptor site by:
blocking a neurotransmitter’s access to the site
Clomipramine and fluoxetine alleviate the symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder by affecting levels o
involves the use of nonliving objects
According to recent research, the compressed workweek has the least impact on
Most well-controlled studies of the effect of cultural moderators on the validities of job selection tests indicate that there are
no significant differences in validities between majority and minority groups
Sexual Sadism
involves inflicting humiliation or suffering
cue deflation effect
happens when the extinction of a response to one cue leads to an increased reaction to the other conditioned stimulus
involves touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person for sexual excitement
Herzberg views satisfaction and dissatisfaction as _______ phenomena
According to Herzberg, the factors that cause dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) are ______ from those that contribute to satisfaction (motivator factors)
For the prevention and treatment of childhood sleep disorders, Ferber recommends that by six months parents should:
provide only verbal comfort or a pat on the back if the child cries
Research on psychotherapy outcomes suggest that, overall, culturally diverse groups do about as well as Anglo clients. However, as a specific group, less favorable outcomes are shown by
What would be used to measure the internal consistency of a test?
split-half reliability
A behavior therapist would likely view anxiety as the result of:
classical conditioning, in which an aversive stimulus or negative life event served as an unconditioned stimulus
Organizational justice research indicates:
procedural justice is the best predictor of work performance and of counterproductive work behavior, but all justice forms are related to organizational citizenship behaviors.
According to Piaget, what underlies cognitive development?
biological maturation and environmental stimulation
Social facilitation is related to ....
increased arousal
Tertiary Prevention
can be thought of as being closest to the illness, because it is designed to prevent recurrence of the problem
Secondary prevention
involves early detection and treatment of problems before they develop into a full-blown illness
Primary prevention
is aimed at preventing problems before they occur in the first place
Chronic pain research estimates _____% of patients can be expected to achieve at least 50% pain relief with antidepressants
The leading cause of infant mortality is
congenital malformations
When processing data of "low quality," from small samples, or on variables about which nothing is known concerning their distribution, which statistical procedure would be most appropriate?
Chronic pain treatment with tricyclic antidepressants is most effective for:
neuropathic pain and headaches
Tricyclic antidepressants, as compared to MAO inhibitors
are more effective in the treatment of the vegetative symptoms of depression
The “revolving door” phenomenon of deinstitutionalizing psychiatric patients refers to:
required readmission to psychiatric hospitals
Minority Identity Development (MID) model

Five Stages


resistance and immersion


synergetic articulation and awareness
Highest rates of suicide attempts occur between the ages of
MID Model

Conformity Stage
strong negative feelings towards her own culture
Highest rates of completed suicides are
people over 65
Hypoglycemia may be a primary condition, a complication of another disorder or a consequence of certain drugs. Hypoglycemia is the result of:
low levels of blood glucose
In Gestalt therapy, introjection, projection, deflection, confluence and retroflection are examples of:
resistances to contact
Prochaska and DiClemente described five Stages of Change
Precontemplation (denial)
Contemplation (6 months out)
Preparation (30 days out)
Action (actively engaged)
Maintenance (6 months in)
Instinctual drift
refers to the tendency for learned behavior to drift toward instinctual behavior over time
Impulsive aggression
describes emotion-driven aggression produced in reaction to situations in the “heat of the moment
Males and females from single-parent families have a _____ suicide rate than those from dual-parent families
When working with African-American families, Nancy Boyd-Franklin recommends:
An ecostructural approach

A multisystems approach
Therapist self-disclosure in feminist therapy:
contributes to an egalitarian relationship between the client and therapist.
Positive feedback
alters the system to accommodate novel input or a new state of equilibrium
negative feedback
maintains or restores the status quo of the system
Alzheimer's is related to an under production of
Secondary impotence
persistently or recurrently fails to attain or maintain an erection even though in the past he has successfully achieved an erection
Alzheimer's Dementia is most often associated with damage to the
Temporal lobe
In implosive therapy
a client is immediately exposed, through the imagination, to a feared stimulus at its maximum intensity
Old age (is/is not) correlated with secondary impotence.
is not
Extinction treatment paradigms are often limited by:
accidental reinforcement
Among bilinguals, code-switching
is a way for the speaker to better express his or her attitude toward the listener
In Huntington's Disease, the first brain structure to show signs of damage is the
caudate nucleus
first level of the thoracic spinal cord and innervates the hand and arm
innerverates the ring and little fingers
A score of 85 on the Lie (L) Scale of the MMPI-2 may indicate
lack of insight or denial
refers to the lumbar region which contains nerves that affect to hip, thigh, and leg
multitrait-multimethod matrix is one method of assessing a test's ...
construct validity
S1 to S3
sacral region which innerverates parts of the foot and leg.
T2 to T3
lower thoracic region which innervates the trunk
reflects the correlation between two tests that measure different (hetero) traits using different (hetero) methods
Spinal cord is divided into four regions
technique used by structural family therapists, involves taking steps to become a family insider by, among other things, assuming the same type of communication style, sharing personal stories, etc
In comparison studies of younger and older adults, it has been found that depression in older adults is least likely to result in
expressed sadness
Children with a history of bilateral otitis media score lowest on which of the following WISC subtests?
verbal comprehension
Bilateral otitis media has been associated with
the development of Learning Disorders later in childhood
According to a recent meta-analysis on the “big five” traits and job satisfaction, which trait has the strongest relation with overall job satisfaction?
A linear relationship is an assumption of all of the following
structural modeling equation
regression analysis
Pearson r
In regard to substance use, the Americans with Disabilities Act protects individuals participating in a drug rehabilitation program .....
who are no longer using drugs
Proposed a behavioral theory of career decision making?
Disorganized-disoriented attachment in infancy is somewhat predictive of __________ in preschool
hostility toward other children
Krumboltz’s Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making
includes four types of influences on making career decisions: genetic characteristics and special abilities; environmental conditions and events; learning experiences; and performance standards and values. Social learning influences can be positive or negative factors.
A primary reinforcer is the same as:
An unconditioned reinforcer
Research comparing the relationship between age and therapy outcome has produced mixed results. However, in their most recent meta-analysis of the research, Weisz and his colleagues (1995) found
that therapy is more beneficial for adolescents than children, especially among girls
Interpersonal therapists believe that depression is caused and maintained by
disturbances in early life, especially attachment disturbances

Rather than focusing on the past, however, they focus on the connection between the presenting problem and client's current relationships
Girls respond ______ to psychotherapy than boys, with adolescent girls responding _____

___________ ________ have a typical onset of 1 to 3 days after use of the antidepressant is stopped and can be relieved within 24 hours by restarting anti-depressant therapy.
Discontinuatin symptoms
Discriminant and convergent validity are classified as examples of:
construct validity
Discontinuation symptoms are (more likely/less likely) to occur in patients who take an SSRI with a shorter half-life than in patients taking an SSRI with a longer half-life.
more likely
Research on electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) suggests that:
memory deficits are largely reversible although some problems with autobiographical memory may persist for months.
Research on group performance has examined the effects of the heterogeneity of group members in terms of personality, gender, experience, and so on. Overall, these studies have found that heterogeneity is
positively related to creativity and decision-making effectiveness
Syntactic bootstrapping
proposes that the sentence structure surrounding a new word provides clues to its meaning and, in this case, the language-learning child uses his/her developed syntactic knowledge to help learn the meaning of new words
Semantic bootstrapping
refers to the idea that children utilize conceptual knowledge to create grammatical categories
Prosodic bootstrapping
suggests children find and use clues to syntactic structure of language in the prosodic (intonation, stress) characteristics of the speech they hear
Phonological bootstrapping
refers to the hypothesis that clues to the grammar of language are found in phonological (sound) properties of the speech heard.
An individual with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) most likely to exhibit?
overeating and weight gain
A MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) is used to analyze the effects of
one or more independent variables on two or more dependent variables that are each measured on an interval or ratio scale.
A factorial ANOVA is used to analyze data
when a factorial design, which includes two or more independent variables, is used and the dependent variable is measured on an interval or ratio scale.
A one-way ANOVA is used when a study has
one independent variable and more than two independent groups.
The split-plot (mixed) ANOVA is the appropriate technique when at least
one independent variable is a between-groups variable and another independent variable is a within-subjects variable.
In computing test reliability, to control for practice effects one would use
split-half reliability coefficient.

alternative forms reliability coefficient.
Head trauma causing damage to the temporal lobes is most likely to produce deficits in _______ memory.
Reversal of pronouns is dx criteria for ______
always increases the frequency or likelihood of the targeted response.
always decreases the frequency or likelihood of the targeted response
means that a stimulus is applied
In terms of punishment/reinforcement, the term negative means...
that a stimulus is removed
Solution-focused therapy
form of brief therapy that focuses on solutions rather than problems or their causes. Underlying this approach is the assumption that clients possess the resources needed to achieve their goals
One advantage of standard scores as compared to percentile ranks is that standard scores
provide more meaningful information about differences between examinees' test scores
Utility analysis is a technique that assesses the:
the return on investment of training
Research on the cognitive affects of chemotherapy and radiation on children with cancer indicate:
younger children are at greater risk for more problems and more severe problems than are older children
The prevalence rate for autism and autism spectrum disorders in epidemiological studies since 2000 indicate a convergence in the range of:
The technique which allows a researcher to identify the underlying (latent) factors that relate to a set of measured variables and the nature of the causal relationships between those factors is:
structural equation modeling (SEM)
Q-technique factor analysis
determines how many types of people a sample of people represent
The research suggests that, to control excessive aggression in children, the best approach is:
social-skills training
Structured Learning Therapy incorporates
social skills training, an early approach to the treatment of depression, along with modeling, role-playing, skill instruction, and performance appraisal.
In a structured interview...
a series of job-related questions with predetermined “correct” answers are used consistently with all interviewees for a particular job
The best systematic method for tracking the progression of Alzheimer's Disease is
administering assessments of cognitive functioning on a regular basis
What best describes universality of the transactional-transformational leadership theory?
universality has been observed in a wide range of organizations and cultures
Howard Gardner initially defined intelligence as
an ability to solve real-life problems, to generate new problems, and to create something meaningful or offer a service that is valued within a person's culture or local community.
Multiple correlation is used when
there are two or more predictor variables and a single criterion variable
Canonical correlation is used when there are
two or more predictor variables and two or more criterion variables
Tetrachoric correlation is a technique used to estimate
the magnitude of the relationship between two continuous variables that have been dichotomized
Point biserial correlational
is used when one variable is dichotomous (gender) and one is continuous (high school GPA).
The ratio of Major Depressive Disorder in females to males is approximately
A potential drawback of the SSRIs is that they
may initially worsen sleep and anxiety symptoms
The "telling style" according to Hersey and Blanchard
more effective when an employee's ability and willingness to accept responsibility are low

high task orientation and low relationship orientation
The "selling style" according to Hersey and Blanchard
The employee has low ability but high willingness to accept responsibility

high task orientation and high relationship orientation
The "participatory style" according to Hersey and Blanchard
The employee has high ability but low willingness to accept responsibility

task orientation and high relationship orientation
The "delegating style" according to Hersey and Blanchard
The employee's ability to and willingness to accept responsibility are both high

low task and low relationship orientation
What is needed for a successful malpractice lawsuit against a psychologist?
Sufficient harm
Transient Tic Disorder
motor and/or vocal tics lasting at least 4 weeks but for no longer than 12 consecutive months
Tic Disorder NOS
symptoms last less than 4 weeks, for onset above 18 years, or if an individual presented with only one motor tic and only one vocal tic
Tourette's Disorder and Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder each have a duration of more than ___ months
The “fourth force” in psychology has been identified as:
An elderly man is not able to recognize familiar faces. For example, he doesn't recognize family members until they speak. This condition is referred to as
involves deficits in spatial ("route-finding") ability
Capgras' syndrome
belief that a familiar person has been replaced by an imposter who has an identical or similar appearance
Visual agnosia
is a more general term and refers to the inability to recognize familiar objects by sight.
A highly differentiated profile on the Self-Directed Search inventory signifies:
only one of the section scores on the instrument is high
According to Holland (1997), differentiation is defined as
the level of definition or distinctness of a profile and can be thought of as the difference between an individual’s highest and lowest summary scale score on the SDS
Tourette's disorder
the presence of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics for at least one year
The three types of appraisal suggested by Lazarus’s cognitive appraisal theory include:
primary, secondary and reappraisal
Lazarus’ cognitive appraisal theory

Primary appraisal
one’s perception of the situation
Lazarus’ cognitive appraisal theory

Secondary appraisal
assessment of resources available to deal with the situation
Lazarus’ cognitive appraisal theory

watching the situation and changing the other types of appraisals as necessary
Research examining methods of informing children with cancer about their illness suggests that
children are better off when they are given information about their diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment procedures
Research on infants who were raised by multiple changing caregivers until at least two years old were found to:
attach to adopted parents even if not adopted until 6 years of age
Cross-sequential research
combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal research. In cross-sequential research, as in cross-sectional research, subjects are divided into age groups (e.g., young, middle-aged, and old). And, as in longitudinal research, subjects are assessed repeatedly on the dependent variable over time
A patient with Alzheimer's disease would be likely to obtain the lowest scores on which of the following factor indexes on the WAIS-III?
perceptual organization and processing speed
PKU is caused by two autosomal (i.e., not sex-linked) _______ genes
During late childhood and early adolescence males respond (more/less) positively to their stepfathers than do females.
Neither Piaget nor Kohlberg believed that there are ______ differences in the early stages of moral development
Anosognosia is most often due to damage to the:
right parietal lobe
Psychodrama seeks to examine and resolve difficult situations through guided dramatization and the release of creative forces inherent in the individual. The issue or problem to be explored in the psychodrama is chosen by the:
75% of all substance abuse relapses are due
negative affects
Dialectical behavior therapy
consists of outpatient individual therapy, social skills training and follow-up telephone consultations. It also discourages the expression of overt inappropriate affect
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome is associated with damage to the:
Chronic pain is exacerbated by ...
Passive coping
Kuder-Richardson reliability applies to
tests with dichotomously scored questions
Neugarten (1968)
is associated with the shift in perspective from “time from birth” to “time to death”
Gregory Herek (2000), prejudice against lesbians and gay men

"sexual prejudice"
negative attitudes based on sexual orientation, whether the target is homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual.
The discrimination index, D,
has a value range from +1.0 to -1.0

the number of people in the upper or high scoring group who answered the item correctly minus the number of people in the lower scoring group who answered the item correctly, divided by the number of people in the largest of the two groups.
A negative item discrimination (D) indicates:
more low-achieving examinees answered the item correctly than high-achieving.
The Glasgow Coma Scale
standardized test that rates three categories of patient responses: eye opening, best motor response, and best verbal response.
The Rancho Los Amigo Scale
an evaluation of eight levels of cognitive functioning administered in acute rehabilitative settings following release from intensive care.
The AVPU Scale
primarily used after injury occurs or as pre-hospital information. It rates if someone is alert, responds to voice, responds to pain or is unresponsive.
The Disability Rating Scale or DRS
is for gauging general level of disability (e.g., self care, dependence on others) from “none” to “extreme vegetative state"
If a test item has an item difficulty level of ___, this means that ___ of examinees answered the item correctly. Therefore, items with this difficulty level are most useful for discriminating between "high scoring" and "low scoring" groups.

According to the peripheralist theory of emotions, "we feel afraid because we tremble." This approach is reflected by ...
Communication-interaction therapy espouses that communication has both a "report" function and a
command function
The parents of a child with Mental Retardation are most likely to say that, during infancy, one of the earliest signs that something "was wrong" was
the child's lack of interest in the environment
temporal lobe damage
problems understanding what you say

changes in sexual behavior

anterograde amnesia
Perceptual speed tests are highly speeded and are comprised of very easy items that every examinee, it is assumed, could answer correctly with unlimited time. The best way to estimate the reliability of speed tests is
to administer separately timed forms and correlate these, therefore using a test-retest or alternate forms coefficient
Which of the stages in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development corresponds to Freud's latency stage?
industry versus inferiority
Vygotsky's work has most influenced which teaching strategy?
reciprocal teaching
The difference between insanity and psychosis is that:
insanity is a legal term and psychosis is a term used in mental health literature
Patients with depression typically have:
more rapid onset of REM sleep

decreased slow wave sleep

increased percentage of REM sleep
Older adults may respond more ______ to various forms of psychotherapy but there are few significant differences in effectiveness relative to younger adults
Sensation due to brain injury is likely to involve the somatosensory cortex. The Somatosensory cortex is located on the
postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe
The Drug Treatment Act of 2000 allows doctors to treat opioid dependence in their practices with FDA-approved opioid medication. In 2002, the FDA approved two medications for use in opioid addiction treatment:
buprenorphine monotherapy (Subutex)

buprenorphine/naloxone combination (Suboxone)
If you find that your job selection measure yields too many "false positives," what could you do to correct the problem?
raise the predictor cutoff score and/or lower the criterion cutoff score
Research on constructive memory has linked false recollection to lesions in the:
frontal lobe
Use of benzodiazepines is associated with a “rebound effect.” If an individual is experiencing “rebound anxiety,” this refers to:
an increase in severity of anxiety temporarily following the discontinuation of the drug
"According to current research, the Rorschach has very low validity." This statement is
Hand washing frequency by health care workers is low despite the importance of compliance for reducing rates of hospital-acquired infection. Research indicates the most effective interventions for increasing hand washing include:
education, continued performance feedback and reminders
Pure speed tests and pure power tests are _________ of a continuum
opposite ends
The term “success identity” is associated with:
William Glasser
The psychiatric diagnosis most associated with completed suicide is
Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, With Psychotic Features
The Health Belief Model (HBM), which was developed initially to understand why people seemed unwilling to use preventative measures and screening tests available, is based on psychological and behavioral theory. The four dimensions the model considers in the influence of health-related decision making and behavior are:
perceived susceptibility
perceived severity
perceived benefits
perceived barriers.
The phenomenon of "theme interference" in an industrial/organizational setting is most analogous to
Opponent Process Theory of job satisfaction
job attitudes emanate from a person’s physiological state. Opponent process theory assumes that when a person experiences an extreme emotional state, his or her central nervous system mechanisms attempt to bring him or her back to a state of emotional equilibrium or neutrality. In returning to neutrality, the emotional state may even surpass equilibrium and progress to the opposite emotional state.
_______ is not associated with organizational citizenship behavior?
According the Lewin's field theory, behavior is a function of the
relationship between a person and his or her environment. Lewin used the following formula to express this relationship: B = f(P,E) where B is behavior, P is the person, and E is the environment.
The primary function of a school psychologist is to
assess, consult, and make recommendations
Driver, Broussseau, and Hunsaker identified what decision-making styles?
Driver et all decision-making styles

fast, efficient, and relies on a minimal amount of information
Driver et all decision-making styles

fast and is a satisficer, but is willing to adapt and change solutions if indicated
Driver et all decision-making styles

rely on a lot of information (i.e., are maximizers) but stay rigidly focused on a single solution
Driver et all decision-making styles

decision-maker relies on a lot of information (i.e., a maximizer) but pursues multiple solutions.
Driver et all decision-making styles

keep their eyes on the "big picture," rely on maximum information (i.e., a maximizer), and develop a prioritized set of strategies for dealing with a situation, rather than a single solution or a collection of alternative plans
There are two ways to establish the criterion-related validity of a test:
concurrent validation

predictive validation
concurrent validation
predictor and criterion scores are collected at about the same time
predictive validation
predictor scores are collected first and criterion data are collected at some future point
Concurrent validity indicates
extent to which a test yields the same results as other measures of the same phenomenon
When an impulsive group decision that reflects an incomplete consideration of alternatives and consequences is the result of high stress, high group cohesiveness, and a directive leader, this is an example of:
In I/O, Instrumentality refers to
the degree to which performance leads to certain desired outcomes.
In a "split-brain" patient both hemispheres could process linguistic information, even though language production is controlled by the left hemisphere. True/False
Reactive Attachment Disorder occurs in children below the age of 5 and is characterized by disturbed social relatedness. There are two subtypes:
Inhibited (hypervigilance, and ambivalent responses in social situations)

Disinhibited (indiscriminate attachments and sociability )
Timothy Crow distinguishes between two types (I and II) of Schizophrenia. Type I includes symptoms of delusions or hallucinations, inappropriate affect, and disorganized thinking. It is also thought to more likely be due to
neurotransmitter irregularities
Best method of establishing a test's reliability is, all other things being equal, likely to be lowest?
alternate forms
Manual-guided treatment is to used to:
ascertain treatment effects in research by standardizing treatment delivery
_______ _______, or photographic memory, is associated with improved ability to memorize information and tends to be more common in children
Eidetic imagery
In more severe cases of depression, Beck's cognitive therapy initially focuses on:
appropriate behavioral tasks
The primary triggers of relapse in individuals attempting to quit smoking are withdrawal symptoms and
emotional factors such as negative affect
The differential diagnosis between Schizoid Personality Disorder and Avoidant Personality Disorder is based on
fear of rejection
Schizoid Personality Disorder
characterized by a pattern of indifference to social relations and a limited range of emotional expression in social situations
Avoidant Personality Disorder
characterized by social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
By the age of 6, gender constancy, identity and stability are established. True/False
involves the production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases during the effort to speak. Verbal paraphasia is a dominant symptom within the more general category of anomia which refers to word finding difficulty.
Response deprivation theory
proposes when an animal's normal response rate (e.g., eating food) is restricted (e.g., by food deprivation), that behavior becomes more preferred and therefore reinforcing
The Probability-Differential theory is AKA..
Premack Principle
With respect to productivity, cohesive groups are associated with:
higher levels of productivity for the group only when management is supportive
Engineering psychology is concerned with fitting aspects of the job to the worker. The focus is on
the Total Enviornmental system
“Business necessity” and “job relatedness” are related to:
adverse impact
People belonging to high-context cultures rely heavily on __________ when communicating with others
nonverbal cues
The behavior therapy technique for reducing arousal to inappropriate stimuli by first masturbating to orgasm while imagining appropriate stimuli and then continuing to masturbate while fantasizing about paraphilic images after orgasm is called:
Satiation Therapy
Research investigating the brain areas that may be linked to the symptoms of ADHD suggests that degree of impulsivity is associated with the
size of the caudate nucleus
Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are associated with
grand mal epilepsy
Women tend to use more of a _________ leadership style, while men tend to use more of an ________ style

Which of the following disorders is associated with individuals having amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles and in some cases when advanced, dementia?
Parkinson's disease
Research investigating the brain areas that may be linked to the symptoms of ADHD suggests that degree of impulsivity is associated with the
size of the caudate nucleus
In forward stepwise multiple regression analysis, the goal is to obtain the smallest subset of predictors to account for the largest amount of variability in the criterion variable. Statistically, this involves:
adding predictors to the multiple regression equation and determining, through statistical analysis, if the coefficient of multiple determination is significantly increased
According to the hopelessness theory of depression, hopelessness is a:
proximal sufficient cause of depression
When developing a treatment plan for a client with a Specific Phobia, it is important to keep in mind tha
for some Specific Phobias (e.g., dental and animal phobias), two to four sessions are often useful for significantly reducing phobic reactions in many people
The term "group polarization" refers to the tendency of groups to make decisions that are
more risky or more conservative than those that might be made by individual members
The hopelessness theory of depression is a revised version of the 1978 reformulated theory of helplessness and depression. The authors of the hopelessness theory propose that hopelessness is a _____, rather than a symptom, of depression.
A group's decisions tend to be more extreme (in one direction or the other) than those that would be made by individuals in the group acting alone. This phenomenon is referred to as
group polarization
One explanation for group polarization is that group members are more willing to support extreme decisions because, as group members, they won't have to take as much ______ _______ for their decisions as they would if they were acting alone.
personal responsibility
A culturally-encapsulated therapist
tends to accept cultural stereotypes about members of minority groups without question and is unaware of his or her cultural biases
On the WAIS-III the _____ _____ factor score is most negatively impacted by traumatic brain injury, especially for individuals with moderate to severe TBI.
Processing Speed
The upper and lower limits of the standard error of measurement for a test with a mean of 80 and standard deviation of 10 are:
0 to 10
People diagnosed with PTSD are often successfully treated with psychotherapy and don't need to be referred for medication treatment unless:
Their target symptoms of avoidance and derealization interfere with daily life
From the perspective of Lewin's field theory, the focus when studying human behavior should be on
the immediate present
Meta-analysis was first used in psychological research by
Smith and Glass
The onset of sexual maturation in boys under 9 years old or girls under 7 years old is related to activation of the
hypothalamic-pituitary axis
Ellis, the founder of RET, viewed behavioral disorders as stemming from both biological predisposition and early life experiences but argued that their maintenance was due primarily to ....
According to Fiedler's contingency model, a task-oriented leader is most effective when
the task is very structured or very unstructured
Fiedler referred to task-oriented leaders as ____ ____ leaders and that he proposed that low-LPC leaders are most effective in very favorable and very unfavorable situations.
Alloy, Abramson, and Metalsky have revised the learned helplessness model of depression and de-emphasized the role of
The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) is intended for clients aged ___-____ whose reading ability is at or above a sixth-grade level
The tendency to react in a way that is opposite of what is requested or desired is referred to as psychological ______.
The company you work for has asked you to develop and implement a training program. You would begin with a:
needs assessment
Approximately what percent of women experience full-blown postpartum (clinical) depression?
An elevated F score on the MMPI-2 (i.e., the F is greater than 70 and the K is very low) indicates that the:
person is likely being careless or deliberately malingering
Therapists working with elderly patients should be aware that
individual differences among elderly patients are greater than individual differences among younger patients
In order to increase the chances that Mary Ann is altruistic it would help if she
has younger siblings
Behavioral assessments are useful for determining behavioral:
What would be most useful for assessing an eighth grader who has been acting out at school, refusing to follow instructions and disrupting his class?
Conners Rating Scales-R
The Conners Rating Scales-Revised is used to identify hyperactivity and other behavioral problems in individuals aged ___ to ___ by obtaining reports from teachers and parents; it also includes a self-report scale for adolescents.
3 - 17
In Seligman's theory of learned optimism, attributions of optimistic people are believed to be the _______ of depressed people.
The tendency of sports teams to win more often when they are playing on their home court is referred to as the “home advantage.” This phenomenon is best explained by:
social support from fans
Since depressed people make internal, stable, and global attributions to negative events, optimistic people would tend to make ____, ____, and _____ attributions in response to negative events.
external, unstable, and specific
As a treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, in vivo exposure:
is most effective when exposure is combined with response prevention
Loss of declarative memory is associated with
Alzheimer's Dementia
The effects of parental discipline on the development of conscience in toddlers is mediated by the toddlers' level of:
While in vivo exposure has been found superior to exposure in imagination for Simple Phobia and Agoraphobia, the difference is ____ ____ for OCD
less clear
The use of ____ discipline was found more effective for the development of conscience among fearful toddlers than among fearless toddlers.
From the perspective of Bandura's social learning theory, "functional value" refers to:
anticipated consequences
Kohlberg's theory of moral development is based on the assumption that progress through his hypothesized stages is related to
changes in social perspective
For Simple Phobia and Agoraphobia, gradual exposure and maximal exposure (flooding) seem to be ______ effective as are massed or distributed exposure sessions.
Recent findings indicate there is a type of cells in the premotor cortex which are activated when a person executes object-directed actions of a certain general type, and when the individual sees another individual performing actions of the same type. These cells are called:
mirror neurons
If a person learns a behavior through modeling coupled with external reinforcement, why, according to Bandura, would that behavior continue in the absence of a model or external reinforcement?
The accomplishment of new behavioral skills can be reinforcing in itself.
For a diagnosis of Bulimia Nervosa, a person must have a history of binge eating and
inappropriate compensatory behavior for at least three months
Sue and Sue's (1990) Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model is an elaboration of the Minority Identity Development model (MID). The Sue and Sue model elaborates....
on individuals' attitudes toward self and others
Declarative memory is also known as:
explicit memory
In a factor analysis, an eigenvalue corresponds to
the explained variance of one of the factors
Early memory and attention deficits in Alzheimer's disease are believed to be caused by decreased activity in
cholinergic neurons
The assumption that prejudice and discrimination are outgrowths of the drive to enhance one’s own self-esteem is most consistent with the perspective of which theory?
social identity theory
A selection test that has a validity coefficient of .50 will have the greatest incremental validity when:
the selection ratio is .05 and the base rate is .50
Children with Generalized Anxiety Disorder most frequently worry about:
performance in school or sporting events
Signs of the personality characteristic of social inhibition are usually present
by the age of four months
Lazarus’ theory proposes that
a thought must precede any emotion or physiological arousal
physiological and emotional arousal are experienced at the same time
event causes physiological arousal first, then interpretation or reasoning and finally the experience of emotion
Super's conceptual model of the life rainbow depicts:
life roles.
According to current research, the most predictive variable for adult IQ scores among infant responses would be
attention to a visual recognition task
A loss of memory for autobiographical information is referred to as:
functional amnesia
Functional amnesia is a condition, caused by a
psychological trauma, in which individuals are unable to remember significant events in their lives, i.e., autobiographical information
The preferred treatment for Agoraphobia is
in-vivo exposure with response prevention.
The error inherent in the best fit regression line is called the standard error of the:
Psychological factors are not related to the onset of cancer but ...
are related to the success of recovery from it
Which of the following smoking cessation treatments is least effective for long-term abstinence?
nicotine replacement
According to the current research, the effects on children of observing aggressive models, such as through television violence, are
both short-term and long-term
The research has shown that, in the treatment of nicotine dependence, adding a behavioral intervention to nicotine replacement therapy
has little additional effect in terms of short-term abstinence but does improve long-term abstinence
Which of the "Big Five" personality traits is most associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder?
high on neuroticism, low on agreeableness, and low on conscientiousness
True or False, The majority of people who quit smoking gain weight, with typical weight gain being between 20-25 pounds.
True or False, Rapid remarriage of one or both parents is predictive of poorer adjustment.
Brain imaging techniques have identified abnormalities in which areas among people with Tourette Syndrome, Autistic Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder?
frontal lobes and basal ganglia
The _____ __ _____ _____ is an alternative to stage theories of memory. The _____ __ _____ _____ proposes that stimuli are processed at different levels, and the deeper the level of processing, the more likely it will be remembered.
Levels of Processing Theory
Craik and Lockhart's Levels of Processing Theory would predict that in order to maximize recall of a list of words a person should:
make up a rhyme using the words
In most species of animals the differences between males and females in body size and shape is referred to as:
sexual dimorphism
During the acute phase, hypoglycemia is most likely to be misdiagnosed as:
Panic Disorder
Avoidance behavior is difficult to treat because:
the feared stimulus is never presented
Poor recall for information learned yesterday as the result of learning that took place last month is referred to as:
proactive interference
The most frequently used projective test is the
Rorschach Inkblot Test