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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A transducer is a device that converts one kind of energy into another.

ex: electric guitar strings convert vibrations into electrical signals.
founded by Gustove T Fechner

-study of the relationship between the physical stimuli and our psychological perceptions of them

such as loudness, brightness, taste
Absolute Threshold
A point indicating the minimum amount of physical energy necessary to produce a sensation; the majority of the time.
Ishihara Test
a test commonly used to measure color blindness and weakness
Taste (2 things)
-4 basic sensations of taste: bitter, sour, salty, and sweet

- infants have the most taste buds and are more sensitive to taste than a child or an adult
Lock-and-key theory
(3 things)
Different shaped holes or pockets exist on the surface of the olfactory receptors. Chemicals produce odors when part part of a molecule matches a hole of the same shape.
Also the location of the receptors are activated by a particular odor.
Finally, the number of activated receptors tells the brain how strong an odor is.
Control Theory of Pain
(3 things)
-developed by Ronald Melzack

-suggests that pain messages from different nerve fibers ass through the same neural "gate" in the spinal cord.

-If the gate is "closed" by one pain message, other messages may not be able to go through.

-suggests that one type of pain will cancel another.
The Pinna
(2 things)
-the external part of the ear

-Function: concentrates sounds
The Eardrum
-Function: Transmits vibrations across the middle-ear to the oval window
The Auditory ossicles
-3 small bones (malleus :hammer, incus: anvil, staples: stirrup)- which the eardrum puts in motion, and who in turn, cause the oval window to vibrate.
The Cochlea

(3 things)
-the organ of Hearing

-sine it is here that waves in the fluid are detected by the tiny hair cells, which generate nerve impulses to be sent to the brain

-a coiled tube in the inner ear which contain the auditory reeptors (the hair cells)
The hair Cells
-the sensory receptors in the cochlea that transduces vibrations (sound waves) into coded neural impulses
The basilar Membrane
- a structure within the cochlea that vibrates and thus stimulates the hair cells of the inner ear
Place Theory
-states that higher and lower tones excite specific areas of the cochlea.
Stimulation Deafness
(2 things)
Occurs when very loud sounds damage hair cells in the cochlea

-Associated with many jobs (e.g. hunting, construction)

The danger of hearing loss depends on what?
The loudness of sound and how long you are exposed to it

-stimulation deafness
The lens
function: focuses images on the light sensitive layer at the back of the eye
The iris
(2 things)
-the coloured part of the eye

-Function: controls the amount of light entering through the pupil
The retina
the photosensitive lining at the back of the eye

-controls the photoreceptors
The Rods

(in the retina)
-Black and White vision

-are much more sensitive to light than the cones, thus, allowing us to see in dim light (night vision)
Peripheral Vision
(3 things)

part of rods
-very sensitive to motion

-are INsensitive to extremely red light

-practical applications: applied in the illumination of submarines & airplane cockpits
rods are most sensitive to what light?
Blue-green light

practical application: blue gets attention at night, airway roads, police cars
The cones
(3 things)

in retina
-work best in bright light (day vision)

-producing color sensations

-picking up Fine Detail
The Fovea
(3 things)
-a small depression in the center of the retina containing the greatest concentration of cones

-Thus, vision is SHARPEST when an image falls on the Fovea

-Cones are MOST SENSITIVE to light in the YELLOW-GREEN bands
Opponent-Process Theory of Color Vision
-states that the visual system can produce messages for EITHER red OR green, yellow OR blue, black OR white

-either or messages
-how we assemble sensations into meaningful patterns
-represents the SIMPLEST perceptual organization

-some aspect of the stimulus pattern appears to stand out as an object (figure), while other aspects appear to fall into the background (ground)
Law of Proximity

-Gestalt Organization Law
-states that the CLOSER two figures are to each other, the more equally they will ten to be grouped together perceptually
Law of Similarity

-Gestalt Organization Law
-states that other things being equal, we tend to group things according to their similarity
Law of Good Continuation

--Gestalt Organization Law
-states that our visual system seems to prefer contours that continue smoothly along their original course
Law of Closure

-Gestalt Organization Law
-states that we tend to complete (close) figures that have gaps in them, so that they have a consistent overall form
Subjective Contours

-Gestalt Organization Law
-contours are seen, despite the fact that they do NOT physically exist
The Visual Cliff
-Measures depth perception in infants, BUT

requires that the infant must be able to crawl
Binocular Depth Cues
(Retinal Disparity)

(4 things)
-involve BOTH eyes

-the MOST important source of depth perception

-based on the fact that the eyes are 2.5 inches apart

-THUS, the eye SEES the object slightly differently and the difference in overlap provides us with a sensation of depth
Monocular Depth Cues
-involve only one eye
Linear Perceptive

-monocular depth cue
-refers to the apparent convergence of parallel lines in the environment

-monocular depth cue
-occurs when one object (in the foreground) partially obscures another object (in the background)
Relative Size

-monocular depth cue
-states that the farther of two identical objects will be smaller in size
Motion Parallax

-monocular depth cue

(3 things)
-NOT a pictorial depth cue

-perhaps the MOST POWERFUL monocular depth cue

-refers to the fact that as we move, nearby objects seem to move VERY quickly in an opposite direction; distant objects also seem to move in the opposite direction, but at a lesser velocity
Size Constancy
-states that the perceived size of an object remains the same despite changes in the retinal image
Distal Stimulus
-refers to the stimulus in the outside world (actual object)
Proximal Stimulus
-refers to the physical stimulus at the receptor (retinal image)
Shape Constancy
-states that the perceived shape of an object remains the same even though the retinal image changes
The Phi Phenomenon
(2 things)
-refers to the appearance of motion generated by non-moving stimuli

-that is, an illusion of apparent motion

eg: construction lights, restaurant signs
Moon Illusion
-refers to the illusion in which the moon, near the horizon, appears much larger than it does when it's high in the sky
The 2 monocular depth cues involved in the moon illusion are:
Interposition: nearby objects obscure more distant ones

Relative size- the more distant of 2 equally sized obj, should appear smaller
Muller Lyer Illusion
-the horizontal line with the arrowheads appears shorter than the line with the V's
The Ames Room
-the perceiver is faced with the choice of either maintaining the SIZE constancy of the people, or the shape constancy of the room

-surprisingly, they elect to maintain the shape constancy of the room
-the process by which a child gains info by APPLYING existing skills to events encountered

-is used when existing schemes work
-occurs when a goal cannot be achieved utilizing existing schemes. The child CHANGES the scheme to adjust to the novelty of the situation

-is used when MINOR changes ina scheme are needed
-is a plan
Sequence of the Stages
-concrete operational
-formal operational
Sensorimotor Period
-During this period, mental development involves progress in the infant's ability to organize and coordinate sensations and perceptions with physical movements and actions