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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Altruism
The motive to increase others welfare without conscious regard for ones interest
Theory that states human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize ones costs
Social Exchange Theory
Name the strategy involves in the social exchange theory?
Minimize costs Maximize rewards, or the Minimax theory.
What did B.F. Skinner see at the true cause for Altruism?
When there was no explanation or an inability to find the cause for helping others.
What is the motive to increase one's own value or welfare (the opposite of Altruism)
What are two internally motivates reasons people help others?
To relieve distress or anxiety from observing the other
To reduce guilt of having done bad before
What are some ways people release guilt?
helping others
Doing a good deed
What are three emotional states that do not induce helping behaviors and why?
Profound Grief

When one is self occupied, one helps less
What are the two "social norms" associated with altruistic behaviors?
Reciprocity Norm
Social Responsibility Norm
The expectation that people will help and not hurt those who have helped them.
The Reciprocity Norm
What is the norm of Social responsibility?
The act of helping others who are deservedly in need, with out regard for future exchanges.
What norms do those of the Conservative political party typically follow?
Only give what they deserve, or give if they deserve help.
What attribution is important for the Social Responsibility Norm to be executed?
Feelings of Sympathy for the other.
What are the three theories that explain altruism?
Social Exchange Theory
Social Norms Theory
Evolutionary Psychology
In what two ways is genetic selfishness predisposed toward Altruism?
Kin Protection
In the three theories used to explain altruism (social exchange, social norms and evolutionary) how do they explain behaviors toward mutual altruism?
Social exchange: Seeking External Rewards
Social Norms: Reciprocity Norm
Evolutionary Theory: Reciprocity
In the three theories used to explain altruism (social exchange, social norms and evolutionary) How are behaviors that intrinsically motivated explained?
Social exchange: Internal Rewards (relieve guilt and distress)
Social Norms: (Social Responsibility Norms)
Evolutionary Theory: Kin Selection
What role does Empathy have in Altruism
Those who feel empathy towards another are more inclined to be altruistic and help the other.
The vicarious experience of another's feelings, or being able to put oneself in anothers shoes is called?
In what Situations might altruism fail to show itself?
When those feeling empathy with the sufferer also knows an alternative event that will relieve tension is to occur
Does Altruism REALLY exist according to psychologist?
Only when empathy (a part of human nature) is present in the individual
Describe the Decision Tree proposed by Latane and Darley: There are three steps a bystander takes
Was distress Noticed?
How is distress Interpreted?
Will individual take responsibility?
Tendency to overestimate others ability to "read" into our internal states.
Illusion of transparency
Two reasons for why City dwelling people are less prone to help those in distress?
Compassion Fatigue
Sensory Overload
In what situations of emergency will a group take action to help?
When the situation is clear and not ambiguous.
Describe the feeling of elevation?
Distinctive feeling in the chest of warmth and expansion
How do Time pressures effect helping behaviors
Those who are pressed for time, or on a way to an important date will be less likely to help than those who are not.
What personality traits are associated with helping behaviors?
High Self Monitoring
How can one reduce the anonymity effect in bystanders
By creating a personal interaction:
Eye Contact
Anticipation of future interactions
What is Moral inclusion and Moral exclusion?
Moral inclusion is the inclusion of all people within ones own moral concerns

Moral exclusion is the exclusion of "others" from ones own moral concerns.
What are six steps to take to increase altruistic behavior?
Reduce ambiguity and Increase Responsibility
Enable feelings of guilt and concern to arise towards self image
Teach Moral Inclusion
Model Altruism
Make Helping behavior to be perceive as Altruistic
Increase awareness of Altruism (Teach it)