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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define: sex
Physical, biological identity. How one is presented.
Define: gender
The way we make meaning of our sex. Social product.
What are the different terms that Lorber defines gender as in her work the Social Construction of Gender?
-Process="doing gender"
-Stratification system
-Structure
-Legitimized by social institutions
Define: Preformativity of gender
-Lorber
-How we "do gender"=clothing, speaking, walking, act.
-Praise/discouragement and effort play a role into how we express our gender
-Gender as a process=done w/o thinking and everyday
Define: gender as a stratification system
-Lorber
-Gender is institutionalized, social organization
-Necessity of having order to make sense of each other in the human mind (A/not A, must be a normal and not normal)
Define: first wave feminism
-1848-1920
-State=coverture, individual rights, freedom
-Church=arbitrator of morals, "women be silent" Bible reinforces women's role as wives/mothers
-Home=True Womanhood, separate spheres (private vs. public)
When did women get the vote?
1920
What were the 3 major components of First Wave Feminism?
1.State
2.Church (social/cultural institutions)
3.Home (affective relationships, individual life)
Define: coverture
-Coverature= marriage, single entity where man assumes rights
-Forfeited all profits, property to husband, no legal right to children, husband responsible for wife's wrongdoings
-Divorces nearly impossible
Define: separate spheres ideology
-Different spheres of influence for men and women
-Men= public, strong, corrupt, rational, selfish
-Women= private, weak, moral, emotional, nuturing
What did the women's rights movement stem from?
-Anti-Slavery movement and Frederick Douglas (who supported women's suffrage)
-Abolition moral thing to do, women more moral
Define: Seneca Falls Convention
-Main goal to get rid of the idea that men and women are different. We got this idea because we have been trained/educated to believe this (speech by Stanton)
-B/c women must fight for their own rights not men b/c she must embody the things that she wants to happen
-National Women's Suffrage Organization (Stanton and Anthony based on natural rights)
-1848
How does Stanton refute the argument that men are superior in the Seneca Falls speech?
-Intellectually=unfair b/c women don't get the same education opportunities
-Moral=men inferior b/c women are more selfless, need to bring men up to women's standards
-Physically=can vary by culture, women don't get opportunity to express physicality
Define: indirect influence
Your husband/son will reflect your views
How does Stanton refute the church and home argument in Seneca Falls?
-Church=women should be dictated by god not man
-Home=will not destroy harmony, husband and wife should share responsibility in home=happier home
Define: Declaration of Sentiments
-Parody of Declaration of Independence
-Individual rights=men and women created equal, based in Enlightenment principles
-Stanton
Define: Women's Christian Temperance Union
-Willard as president
-Prohibition and suffrage=outnumbered women in suffrage organizations
-Women could bring changes with political power
What were the man points Willard makes in "Home Protection"
-Embraces True Womanhood and that there are differences between man and woman, embraces status quo and domesticity
-Mother's nature to look out for son
-For the better of the world rather than individual
Define: Sojurner Truth
-Ain't I a Woman speech
-Didn't write down speeches
-Feminism for black women
-Individual rights
What were the main points of Truth's "Ain't I a Woman" speech?
-Why aren't black women's rights the same as white women's? Doesn't get mens or white women's
-Mother=children sold away so not in private sphere
-Church=men have nothing to do w/ religion, God and Mary, Eve painted as strong one
Define: True Womanhood
-Concept by Barbara Welter
-Piety, purity, submissiveness, domesticity=proper role
-Francis Willard supported
-Middle class ideal
Define: gender as a social institution
-Lorber
-Institutions enforce gender stereotypes and make it difficult to go against the grain
Define: arguments of expediency
-Willard
-Women's Christian Temperance Union
-Women's suffrage for the good of the country rather than because they deserve the right to vote
-Women could change the world for the better because of their moral compass, practicality
-Means to an end, accepting differences in sexes
Define: arguments of justice
-Stanton, Anthony, Truth
-Individual rights instead of practicality
-Women deserve same rights as men
-Equality, not differences
Define: "Home Protection"
-Willard's speech title
-That women needed the vote in order to protect their households from the drunk, angry men
Define: "a room of one's own"
-Virginia Woolf
-Women must have 500 pounds a year and a room of their own to create fiction (thesis)
-Need financial (material) independence and a place for solitude (emotional/intellectual independence)
Define: "ain't I a woman?"
-Sojurner Truth
-Why is she not treated like white women?
-Individual rights
-Women are automatically coded as white, but she is not fragile and not a mother (children sold away) but yet still doesn't have the rights of a man
Define: social construction of gender
-Gender norms vary overtime, therefore origins of gender and gender norms are not biological (pink and blue example)
-Lorber
-Gender a product of environment and culture
Define: Judith Shakespear
-Woolf
-Has become a feminist symbol for unrealized talent in women because of hinderance of their freedom
-Told to put down books, no education, married off but ran away, same thirst for knowledge as brother
Define: androgynous mind
-Woolf
-2 sexes of mind and body, everyone has masculine and feminine parts
-True talent/full potential realized when both parts are in harmony
-Androgynous mind can look at the world w/o hinderance
What did Judith Lorber write?
-Pink and Blue Forever
-Developmental Dynamics of Pink and Blue
-The Social Construction of Gender
What are the important points in Lorber's Pink and Blue Forever?
-Historical look at gender origins
-Historically has not always been pink and blue, gender norms change over time
-Gender a product of culture/environment rather than biology
What are the important points in Lorber's Developmental Dynamics of Pink and Blue?
-Gender is developmental not innate or biological
-Reward/punishment system installed by society creates gender norms not biology
What did Elizabeth Cady Stanton write?
-Address Delivered at Seneca Falls
-Declaration of Sentiments
-The Solitude of Self
What are the important points in Stanton's Address Delivered at Seneca Falls?
-Women must fight for their rights, not men in order to embody change she wants to see
-Refutes that men are superior morally, intellectually, and physically
-Refutes state, home, and church arguments
-Men and women are the same but training/education has made us believe we're different
What are the important points in Stanton's Declaration of Sentiments?
-Based on Declaration of Independence
-Based on Enlightenment principles
-Lots of sentences start with "he"
What did Francis Willard write?
Home Protection
What are the important points in Willard's Home Protection
-Expediency (betterness of world), embraces differences between men and women/status quo
-Women's Christian Temperance Union=women could bring changes with political power
-Embraces True Womanhood, domesticity, protect sons
What did Sojourner Truth write?
Ain't I a Woman?
What are the important points in Truth's Ain't I a Woman?
-Feminism for black women, why is she not treated like a white woman?
-Mother argument doesn't apply b/c children sold away
-Church=man has nothing to do with religion (God and Mary, Eve as strong)
-Rights/justice, acts more like men but doesn't get their rights either
What did Ida B. Wells write?
Southern Horrors
What are the important points in Wells' Souther Horrors?
-Launched anti-lynching campaign in journalistic approach
-Truth vs. what newspapers say
-Public swayed into thinking lynchings were okay (even Wells herself)
-Undermining assumptions about gender, black men not raping white women, create "black rapist" b/c we cannot fathom white women as sexual, if the crime was really rape black and white men would be lynched
-Happening to keep black ppl submissive to white ppl, speaking out/being successful dangerous for blacks
-Solution: boycotts, use the press for truth, have guns
What are the important points in Stanton's The Solitude of Self?
-People are first an individual, then citizen, then equal rights, then different incidental relations (least important)
-All humans are fundamentally alone, women must be strong and able to defend themselves
What did Virginia Woolf write?
A Room of One's Own
What are the main points in Woolf's A Room of One's Own?
-Contrast between Oxbridge and Fernham= humble vs. lavish
-Material wealth and physical independence are required for creativity (women must have $ and a room of one's own to write fiction)
-Walking off path at Oxbridge metaphor for women's intellectual independence (barred from church/library)
-Judith Shakespeare=opportunity-creativity, women's absence in history
-Professor von X=men angry b/c trying to protect power, afraid of losing superiority