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195 Cards in this Set

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What is physical activity?
Any form of exercise or movement



It can be planned and structured, or unplanned and unstructured

Describe a healthy active lifestyle
A lifestyle that contributes positively to social, physical and mental well-being, and that includes regular physical activity
Define health
A state of complete mental, physical and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
What does 'social' refer to and what are the social benefits of physical activity?
To do with the community and society

Benefits:
~ Meeting new people and making new friends

~ Opportunities to get together with existing friends


~ Improving cooperation and teamwork skills
~ Increased social activities (and therefore less likely to engage in antisocial behaviour)

What does 'physical' refer to and what are the physical benefits of physical activity?
To do with the body

Benefits:
~ Contribute to good physical health (stronger bones/reduced chance of developing osteoporosis, reduced chance of coronary heart disease, reduced chance of a stroke, reduced chance of obesity)
~ Increase fitness (strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness and flexibility)


~ Physical challenge


~ Competition


~ Aesthetic appreciation

What does 'mental' refer to and what are the mental benefits of physical activity?
To do with the mind

Benefits:
~ The 'feel-good factor' from increased serotonin levels


~ Relieve and/or prevent stress (helps you relax/takes your mind off other problems)
~ Reduced chance of developing stress-related illness
~ Increase self-esteem and self-confidence (feel part of something, are performing better and think you look better)


~ Competition


~ Aesthetic appreciation


~ Physical challenge
~ Contribute to enjoyment in life

What is aesthetic appreciation?
Recognising the quality or skill of movement in an activity

What are the reasons for taking part in physical activity?

~ Stimulates serotonin production and feeling of enjoyment


~ Cooperation


~ Competition


~ Physical challenge


~ Aesthetic appreciation


~ Development of friends and social mixing

What are the benefits of taking part in physical activity?
~ Increased well-being

~ Helps you feel good (serotonin)


~ Increased confidence


~ Contributes to good health


~ Contributes to enjoyment of life

Name the key influences that impact on achieving sustained involvement in physical activity
~ Cultural
~ Health and well being
~ Resources

~ Image
~ Socio-economic


~ People

Name the 'cultural' factors
~ Gender
~ Age
~ Race
~ Disability
Name the 'health and well being' factors
~ Good health

~ Short-term illnesses
~ Long-term health problems

Name the 'image' factors
~ Fashion
~ Media
Name the 'resources' factors
~ Location
~ Access
~ Time
~ Availability
Name the 'people' factors
~ Family
~ Peers
~ Role models
Name the 'socio-economic' factors
~ Cost
~ Status
Name the roles available in physical activity
~ Player/Performer
~ Leadership
~ Official
~ Volunteer
Name the stages of the sports participation pyramid from bottom to top
~ Foundation

~ Participation
~ Performance
~ Elite

What is the foundation stage of the sports participation pyramid?

~ Introductory stage


~ Bottom of the pyramid


~ Contains the most people


~ Where people start or try an activity and only have basic skills


~ Includes compulsory school sport

What is the participation stage of the sports participation pyramid?

~ When you choose to continue with sport (it is non-compulsory)


~ Fewer people than at the foundation stage


~ Slightly higher level of skill than foundation, but not as competitive as the performance stage


~ Includes playing in an after-school club

What is the performance stage of the sports participation pyramid?
~ Player at this stage is really good at their sport

~ Non-compulsory


~ Competitive


~ People play in leagues (though not at top level)


~ Skill is improved by coaching and playing in competitions

What is the elite stage of the sports participation pyramid?

~ Relatively few performers


~ National and international levels


~ Huge amount of skill and determination

What are the common purposes of initiatives?
~ Increase participation
~ Retain people

~ Create opportunities

What does 'increase participation' mean, why do agencies want to do this and how is it achieved?
Getting more people involved in sport and physical activity



For the benefits from physical activity (e.g. increased health and fitness), leading to a healthier nation (better for everyone - individuals and employers) and more entertainment from better performers




Achieved through creating opportunities for people to participate in sport (e.g. clubs)

What does 'retain people' mean, why do agencies want to do this and how it it achieved?
Keeping people involved in sport



So they maintain or improve fitness and health, may take on other roles and are more likely to succeed




Achieved through an effective network of clubs, a route to progress with good facilities and the opportunity for competition

What does 'create opportunities' mean, why do agencies want to do this and how is this achieved?

Providing chances for talented performers to compete and perform



Allows talented performers to achieve success



Achieved through progression being possible from foundation to elite stages of participation pyramid by providing better facilities, better coaching and better education

What are Sport England working to do and how are they doing this?

'Start, stay, succeed'



Working to create a community sport system by:

~ investing National Lottery Funding


~ working with UK Sport (responsible for elite success and Youth Sport Trust)


~ delivering mass participation sporting legacy from 2012 Olympics (Places People Play)

What is the Youth Sport Trust working to do and how are they doing this?
Working to create a PE and sport system that engages all young people by:

~ working with schools and National Governing Bodies to establish new clubs on school sites


~ creating the next generation of volunteers as coaches, officials and team managers


~ supporting sports colleges

What are National Governing Bodies (NGBs) working to do and how are they doing this?



Give an example of an NGB

Working to increase the numbers and skill level of those participating in their sport by:

~ increasing the quality and quantity of coaches, volunteers and officials


~ organising more competitions (at all levels)


~ assisting with facility developments




Examples: Football Association (FA) and Badminton England

Define fitness
The ability to meet the demands of the environment
Define exercise
A form of physical activity done to maintain or improve health and/or physical fitness; it is not competitive sport
Name the components of health-related exercise
~ Cardiovascular fitness
~ Muscular strength
~ Muscular endurance
~ Flexibility
~ Body composition
Define cardiovascular fitness
The ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time without tiring
Define muscular strength
The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance
Define muscular endurance
The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired
Define flexibility
The range of movement possible at a joint
Define body composition
The percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone
Name the components of skill-related fitness
~ Coordination
~ Reaction time
~ Agility
~ Balance
~ Speed
~ Power
Define coordination
The ability to use two or more body parts together
Define reaction time
The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement
Define agility
The ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body
Define balance
The ability to retain the body's centre of mass (gravity) above the base of support with reference to static (stationary), or dynamic (changing), conditions of movement, shape and orientation
Define speed
The differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time
Define power
The ability to do strength performances quickly


Power = Speed x Strength

Name three tests of cardiovasular fitness
~ Cooper's 12 minute run

~ Treadmill tests


~ Harvard Step test

Name a test of muscular strength

Hand grip test

Name two tests of muscular endurance

~ Harvard step test


~ Sit-up bleep test

Name a test of flexibility

Sit and reach test

Name two tests of coordination

~ 3 ball juggle


~ Alternate wall toss test

Name a test of reaction time

Ruler drop test

Name a test of agility

Illinois Agility Run

Name a test of balance

Standing stork test

Name two tests of speed

~ 30 metre sprint


~ 35m flying start sprint

Name two tests of power

~ Standing broad jump


~ Sergeant Jump test

Name the principles of training

~ Specificity


~ Progressive overload


~ Individual needs


~ Rest and recovery (and reversibility)

What is the specificity principle?

Matching training to the requirements of an acitivity

What is the progressive overload principle?

Gradually increasing the amount of work so that fitness gains occur, but without the potential for injury (uses FITT principles)

What is the individual needs principle?

Matching training to the requirements of an individual

What is rest?

The period of time allotted to recovery

What is recovery?

The time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition

Name the FITT principles

~ Frequency


~ Intensity


~ Time


~ Type

Define frequency (FITT)

How often you train

Define intensity (FITT)

How hard you train

Define time (FITT)

How long you train for

Define type (FITT)

The specific method of training used

Define performance

How well a task is completed

What is reversibility?

Any improvement or change that takes place as a consequenceof training will be reversed when you stop training

What are the values of goal setting?

~ Increased motivation and feel-good factor


~ Increased focus


~ Increased standard


~ Improved monitoring of progress


~ Improved planning of training sessions (due to focus)

What does SMART stand for?

~ Specific


~ Measurable


~ Achievable


~ Realistic


~ Time-bound

Name the methods of training

~ Continuous


~ Interval


~ Fartlek


~ Circuit


~ Weight


~ Cross

What is continuous training and what are its advantages?

Continuous exercise at a moderate to slow pace, without rest



Advantages:


~ Develops cardiovascular and aerobic endurance


~ Beneficial for endurance athletes

What is interval training and what are its advantages?

Periods of hard work followed by periods of rest



Advantages:


~ Improves speed and muscular strength


~ The rest periods enable the performer to recover to maintain working at a high intensity


~ Beneficial for sprinters and sports which have anaerobic bursts

What is fartlek training and what are its advantages?

Combining high and low intensity work over varying terrain and pace (form of continuous training)



Advantages:


~ Improves speed and cardiovascular endurance


~ Beneficial for games players

What is circuit training and what are its advantages?

Combining a variety of exercises or skills into a circuit, with brief periods of rest in between; alternate muscle groups are exercised



Advantages:


~ Improves general fitness


~ Easy and inexpensive to complete

What is weight training and what are its advantages?

A form of interval training using weighs to provide resistance; one set of repetitions is followed by a period of rest



Advantages:


~ Improves muscular strength (heavy weights with low repetitions)


~ Improves muscular endurance (lighter weights with high repetitions)

What is cross training and what are its advantages?

Using a combination of different training methods



Advantages:


~ Useful if you take part in more than one activity


~ Useful of your activity combines a number of different events

How would you assess personal readiness for physical activity?

Complete a PAR-Q (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire)

Define heart rate

The number of times the heart beats per minute

Define resting heart rate

The amount of heart beats per minute when the body is at rest

What is your maximum heart rate and how would you calculate it?

The maximum number of times your heart can beat in a minute



Maximum heart rate = 220 - your age

Define recovery rate

The time it takes for the heart to return to resting rate after exercise

Define blood pressure

The force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels

Define stroke volume

The volume of blood ejected from the heart each beat

Define cardiac output

The amount of blood ejected from the heart in 1 minute



Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate

What is systolic blood pressure?

Maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts and forces blood out

What is diastolic blood pressure?

Pressure of the blood in the arteries during the relaxation phase between heart beats

What is haemoglobin?

Substance found in red blood cells that transports oxygen to body tissues

What is cholesterol and what are the two different types?

Fatty substance carried in the blood



HDL (High-density lipoprotein) - good cholesterol; transports/removes a large amount of cholesterol building up in the arteries to the liver



LDL (Low-density lipoprotein) - bad cholesterol; causes build-ups in the artery walls

What are the immediate effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system?

~ Increased heart rate


~ Increased systolic blood pressure


~ Increased stroke volume

What are the effects of regular participation in physical activity on the cardiovascular system?

~ Increased cardiac hypertrophy


~ Increased stroke volume


~ Lower resting heart rate


~ Increased maximum cardiac output


~ Faster recovery rate


~ Increased capillarisation


~ Increased number of red blood cells


~ Healthy veins and arteries


~ Lower cholesterol levels


~ Lower resting blood pressure

What is the cardiovascular system made up of?

~ Blood


~ Blood vessels


~ The heart

How do you reduce the risk of high blood pressure?

~ Maintain a healthy weight


~ Limit alcohol consumption


~ Don’t smoke


~ Eat less salt


~ Avoid stress


~ Regular exercise

What happens during inhalation?

~ Intercostal muscles contract (rib cage moves up and out)


~ Diaphragm contracts (chest cavity volume increases)


~ Pressure in lungs decreases

What happens during exhalation?

~ Intercostal muscles relax (rib cage returns to normal)


~ Diaphragm relaxes (chest cavity volume decreases)


~ Pressure in lungs increases

Where does gaseous exchange occur and what happens?

It occurs in the alveoli and inhaled oxygen diffuses from alevoli into blood in capillary while carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood, into alevoli and is exhaled

What are the short term effects of exercise on the respiratory system?

~ Increased breathing rate


~ Increased depth of breathing

What are the long term effects of exercise on the respiratory system?

~ Increased number of alveoli


~ Increased strength of intercostal muscles


~ Increased strength of diaphragm


~ Increased lung volume (due to increased tidal volume and vital capacity)

What is oxygen debt?

The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery from anaerobic activity above that used at rest

What is vital capacity?

The maximum volume of air you can forcibly inhale and exhale

What is residual volume?

The amount of air left in the lungs after maximal exhalation

What is tidal volume?

The amount of air breathed in and out during normal breathing

What is total lung capacity?

The maximum volume of air held by the lungs

What are the effects of smoking on the respiratory system?

~ Damaged alveoli so less efficient gas exchange


~ Increased risk of emphysema and lung cancer


~ Reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood due to carbon monoxide bonding to haemoglobin


~ 'Smoker's cough'

What is lactic acid?

A chemical that builds up during anaerobic exercise, causing pain in the muscles

What is a tendon?

A connective tissue that joins a muscle to a bone, around a joint

What is a ligament?

A connective tissue that joins a bone to a bone to form and stabalise a joint

What are antagonistic muscle pairs?

Muscles arranged in pairs, so when one muscle contracts, the other relaxes to allow movement

What is the agonist?

The working muscle that is contracting

What is the antagonist?

The relaxing muscle

What are isometric contractions?

Muscle contractions which result in increased tension, but the length does not alter so there is no visible movement

What are isotonic contractions?

Muscle contractions that result in visible movement due to a change in muscle length

What is the treatment for a soft tissue injury?

RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation)

What is the deltoid?

The muscle that surrounds the shoulder and allows for abduction, flexion and extension

Trapezius
Large muscle that runs across each shoulder and connects the humerus (upper arm bone) to the shoulder, neck and head. It keeps the shoulder elevated
Latissimus dorsi
Runs from the humerus down to the lower region of the spine. It can be seen below the arm pit. It adducts the arm at the shoulder
Pectoralis major
The chest muscle. This is a powerful muscle that adducts and flexes the arm at the shoulder
Abdominal muscles
THe stomach muscles that flex the trunk bending the body forward
Biceps
The front muscle on the upper arm that flexes the elbow
Triceps
The back muscle on the upper arm that extends the elbow
Gluteals
The gluteus maximus is the largest of this group of muscles. It extends the leg at the hip. This is a backward movement
Quadriceps
The large muscle group on the front of the thigh. This muscle can flex the leg at the hip, and it can also extend the leg at the knee. Such as kicking a football
Hamstrings
The large muscle group on the back of the thigh. This muscle can extend the leg at the hip, and it can also flex the leg at the knee. Such as preparing to kick a football
Gastrocnemius
The large muscle that bulges in the bottom of the leg. This muscle planta flexes the ankle (a pointing of the toe). A powerful action that is used for sprinting, or jumping of the ground
7 Components of Diet
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals
Fibre
Water
Protein
Make up 15% of calories.
Helps us grow and repair muscle.
E.g. eggs, meat, cheese
Fats
Fats make up 30% of calories
Fats provide energy and keep us warm, however if our body receives a large amount of fat there is a risk of heart disease and obesity.

E.g. oil, butter
Vitamins
Regulate chemical reactions in the body, and helps release energy from food.

Vitamin A =BONES, TEETH & SKIN
Vitamin C = SKIN
Vitamin D = BONES
Minerals (calcium and iron)
Provides structure in forming teeth and bones.
Water
This is needed to hydrate the body.
Water is lost in your breath, sweat & urine
Fibre
Fibre is NOT a nutrient.
Helps your digestive system
E.g. Fruit, vegetables and whole-grain foods.
Carbohydrates… 2 types
Complex
Slow release energy
Sugars which are good for us


Simplistic
Fast release energy
Lots of sugar

Carbohydrates contain the fuels that provide us with energy to sustain our performance
Males between 15 and 18 need how calories a day?

Females between 15 and 18 need how many calories a day?
2750 calories a day.

2100 calories a day.
Blood shunting
During exercise more oxygen and blood gets delivered to the working muscles.

Therefore, LESS blood and oxygen is delivered to the digestive system.

Distribution of blood changes to the demand. For example: High intensity = more blood

Important to time food intake prior to event, so energy from food can be released and delivered to the working muscles.
The general diet for an athlete is . . .
HIGH IN CARBOHYDRATES,
LOW IN FAT,
With a high fluid intake, including energy drinks.
Mesomorph
Wide shoulders.
Narrow hips.
Muscular body, arms and legs.
Very little body fat.

The word ‘Muscular’ will help you remember the body shape of a Mesomorph.

100m sprinter
Ectomorph
Narrow body.
Thin body, arms and legs.
Little body fat.
Very little muscle.

The word ‘Thin’ will help you remember the body shape of an ecTomorph.

High jump, long distance runner
Endomorph
Wide hips
Narrow shoulders
Fat arms and legs
Fat body

The word ‘Dumpy’ will help you remember the body shape of an enDomorph.

Shot putter, sumo wrestler
Optimum weight:
Ideal weight for a person, giving them the best chance for success.

FOR THEIR SPORT
E.g. sumo wrestler & high jumper
Body Mass Index
Calculating BMI (Body mass index) is a general way of working out whether a person is the correct weight for their height.

BMI = Weight (Kg) ÷ [Height (m) x Height (m)]

underweight, overweight , anorexic or obese.
Carbo-loading
Eating more carbohydrates before a competition, match/fixture to ensure you body has extra fuel (GLYCOGEN) supplies
Weight Gain
If the calorie intake exceeds the energy expended
Weight Maintained
If calorie intake is balanced with energy used
Weight Loss
If more energy is expended and less calories are taken in
Overweight
Having weight in excess of normal (not harmful unless accompanied by overfatness).
Heavier than average of gender, height, build.
Not necessarily a threat to health
Over fat
A way of saying you have more body fat than you should have.
Direct effect on health
Can lead to obesity related disease
High blood pressure, heart attack
Obese
Very overfat.
Abnormally fat - 20%

Health risks - diabetes, heart disease

In extremes - can be fatal
Underweight
Weighing less than is normal, healthy or required.
10% under optimum weight
Some naturally underweight
Others try to be underweight to help their sport
Irregular periods, risk of injury, fatigue, osteoporosis
Anorexia
Pertaining to anorexia – a prolonged eating disorder due to loss of appetite.
Why does Optimum Weight vary?
Height, muscle girth, bone structure, gender
What do you call a diet that gives you the correct amount of all the nutrients needed by your body to be healthy?
A balanced diet
50% of your diet needs to consist of what essential nutrient?
Carbohydrates
What do you call the units for measuring the energy value of food?
Calories
What is healthy eating?
Is eating a balance diet to support health and reduce the risk of disease.
What does dehydration mean?
Is when your body does not contain enough water
When the knee extends, what is the name of the agonist?
Quadriceps
When the knee flexes, what is the name of the agonist?
Hamstrings
When the knee extends, what is the name of the antagonist?
Hamstrings
When the knee flexes, what is the name of the antagonist?
Quadriceps
When the elbow flexes, what is the name of the antagonist?
Triceps
When the elbow extends, what is the name of the antagonist?
Biceps
When the elbow flexes, what is the name of the agonist?
Biceps
When the elbow flexes, what is the name of the agonist?
Triceps
When you land a jump, your Quadriceps lower you weight towards the ground under control. What is this type of contraction called?
Isotonic:
- Eccentric (for the mark)
When you push your toes into the ground to jump for a rebound in basketball, what is the name of the muscle that contracts in a concentric action?
Gastrocnemius
When weight training for muscular strength, how many repetitions should you look to include per set?
2 - 8 repetitions
When weight training for muscular endurance, how many repetitions should you look to include per set?
8 - 20 repetitions
How many sets should you complete for each muscle group being trained during weight training?
3 - 4 sets
What is the name of the Triceps antagonist?
The Biceps
What is the name of the Hamstrings antagonist?
The Quadriceps
Which muscle is used to flex the trunk (stomach region)?
The abdominals
Function of the skeletal system
1) Movement
2) Support
3) Protection
Flexion
The angle of at the joint decreases.

Occurs at the shoulder, elbow and knee.
Extension
The angle at the joint increases.

Occurs at the shoulder, elbow and knee.
Abduction
Movement of a limb away from the body.

Occurs at the shoulder joint.
Adduction
Movement of a limb towards the body.

Occurs at the shoulder joint.
Rotation
Movement in a cicular action.

Occurs at the shoulder joint.
Long term effects of exercise on the skeletal system
1) Increased bone density.

2) Ligaments and tendons strengthened.
Osteoporosis
Weakening of bones caused by a reduction in bone density, making them prone to fracture.
Prevention of osteoporosis
Weight bearing exercises.

~Moderate impact:
Walking
Running
Tennis
Aerobics

~High impact:
Plyometrics
Basketball
Triple jump
Compound/ open fracture
Broken bone comes through the skin.
Greenstick fracture
Break only part way across the bone.
Simple fracture
Fracture in one line, no displacement.
Stress fracture
Overuse injuries usually in weight bearing areas, such as the lower leg - shin.
Tennis elbow
Inflamed tendons at the elbow joint.

Outer part of the elbow.
Golfer's elbow
Inflamed tendons at the elbow joint.

Inner part of the elbow.
Dislocation
A bone is pulled or twisted out of place at a joint.
Sprains
Damage to the ligament at a joint.
Torn cartilage
Swells.

Found at the end of bones aids;
Friction-free movement
Shock absorption
Which mineral and vitamin aids the skeletal system?
Calcium

Vitamin D
Calcium
A mineral which helps build strong bones and increase bone density.

Found in milk, cheese and yoghurt.
Vitamin D
Maintains healthy bones.

Helps calcium to be absorbed.

Made by the body when the skin is exposed to sunlight.
Macro nutrients
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Micro nutrients
Minerals
Vitamins
A balanced diet
A diet which contains an optimal ratio of nutrients.
Somatotypes
Classification of body type.