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49 Cards in this Set

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Which were the four clauses in the Treaty of Versailles that affected Germany and what were the results?


Loss of territory - refugees, los of materials, population, pride


Military Restrictions - vulnerable, emasculation


War Guilt Clause - injustice


Reparations - injustice, economic disaster for generations

What was the Weimar Republic?
Government imposed of Germany after WW1
What were the problems that followed the creation of the Weimar Republic?


The Treaty of Versailles - blamed


Political Extremism - too violent to govern in Berlin


Economic Problems - Inflation


French occupation of the Ruhr - industrial capital of Germany

What was the role of the head of state in Germany?

Highest authority in Germany


Represent Germany abroad

What was the role of the Chancellor in Germany?


Decision making


Leader of the largest party in the Reichstag

Which voting system was used in Germany?

Proportional Representation
What were the problems with proportional representation?

Political extremism made lots of splinter parties so no party got enough votes to form a majority so there were also many coalitions
What did Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution state?

That in a time of crisis, the chancellor could rule by decree (like a dictator)
Who was the Chancellor during 1924 in Germany?

Gustav Stresemann
How did the Chancellor in 1924 restore German morale?


Ended inflation (introduced a new currency)


Reassured the French that they would resume paying reparations (loan from America)


New jobs + homes + welfare system

What were the results of the democratic vote in 1924 and 1928?

The Social Democratic Party were voted in
Who did not benefit from the economic recovery of the Stresemann Period and why?


Farmers and landowners - prices dropped


Middle Class - no benefit from welfare


Nationalists, Soldiers and Communists - wanted soviet-style government

Why was the recovery during the Stresemann Period 'fragile'?

Dependent on loans from America
What was happening during 1920s in America?

Overproduction of goods, not a big enough market, prices soared, many unemployed


Many rushed to sell their shares

How did America respond to the glut during the 1920s?

Put up tariff barriers against foreign imports
What happened in America in 1929?
Wall Street Crash - America in economic depression
How did America's misfortune in the 1920s affect other countries?

Couldn't rely on trading with America, millions unemployed and homeless, factories shut down
How did America's misfortune in the 1920s affect Germany's economy?
businesses closed, banks ruined unemployment soared to over 7 million by 1933
What were the social effects on Germany after America's misfortune in the 1920s?
welfare was cut, population were miserable

How did America's misfortune in the 1920s affect Germany's politics?
Extremist parties emerged again. support for Nazi's grew

when did Hitler's parents die?


Father - 15


Mother - 18 (in the hands of Jewish doctor)

Where did Hitler first experience anti-Semitism?

Vienna - tried to be an artist (rejected twice), soaked up prejudices from Viennese society, regarded everyone other than German's as inferior

Why did the Treaty of Versailles shock Hitler?

he had fought in WW1, thought signing the Treaty of Versailles was betrayal, wanted to get into politics as revenge
What was the full name of the Nazi party?

National Socialist German Workers Party
When did Hitler become leader of the Nazi party?

1921
What were some examples of the Nazi parties manifesto points?

Opposition to Versailles, hatred of democracy communism and bolshevism, rearmament, anti-Semitism
What were the features of the party?

Swastika, slogans ('Sieg Heil'), salute, SA, speeches
What were the SA and when were they set up?

1921 - Hitlers body guards, attack rival parties meetings.
Who was the leader of the SA?

Ernst Rohm
Who supported the Nazi's in 1920-1923?

Ex-Soldiers, middle classes, nationalists, unemployed
What was the purpose of the Munich Putsch?

Hitler wanted to take over Munich and furthermore Berlin
What went wrong in during the Munich Putsch?
Ludendorff (army general) changed sides and helped the police, whom Hitler thought he could count on for support
What was the result of the Munich Putsch?

Hitler was put in jail for 5 years (cut to 9 months because the judge agreed with his beliefs)
What were the benefits of the Munich Putsch for the Nazi Party?


Publicity - Hitler was all over newspapers, people read their manifesto


Hitler wrote his autobiography 'Mien Kampf'


Hitler decided to win power by vote

What was the change in number of seats for the Nazi party during the Stresemann period?

1923 - 32 seats


May 1924 - 14 seats


December 1928 - 13 seats



What were the reasons for the change in number of seats for the Nazi party during the Stresemann period?

Germany had faith in Stresemann and didn't need the extremist parties


Nazi's had split into 2 groups during Hitler's time in jail - had to re-establish control

Which organisation was set up by the Nazi's in 1925?

The SS
Who was the leader of the SS?

Heinrich Himmler

What was the Hitler Youth?

1926 - sinister boy scouts (indoctrinate Nazi beliefs)
Who funded the Nazi party in 1928?


steel manufacturer Thyssen

Why did Hitler win support from rural areas?

didn't benefit from Stresemann period
What was the attraction of the SA to youths?

Gave them purpose, uniform and respect
why did the Nazi party encourage crime and disorder?

to show that democracy was failing
why did support grow for the Nazi's in 1929?


people began to lose faith in democracy


were willing to look past Hitler's vulgarity

who was the leader of Nazi propaganda?

Dr Josef Goebbels
How did the Nazi party use propaganda to gain support?


Clear message - democracy has failed you


Ralleys, radio, pamphlets and newspapers


SA intimidated opponents

What were the results of the September 1930 elections?

Nazi's got 107 seats
What were the results of the July 1932 elections?

Nazi's got 230 seats