• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the landforms found in the upper course of a river?
V-shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges of recession
What are the landforms found in the middle course of a river?
Meanders, Oxbow Lakes, Levées, Flood Plains
What are the landforms found in the lower course of a river?
Meanders, Oxbow Lakes, Levées, Flood Plains, Deltas
How is material transported down a river?
Traction, Saltation, Suspension, Solution
What are the four processes of river erosion?
Hydraulic power, Attrition, Corrasion, Corrosion
What is a tributary?
A smaller river which flows into a larger river.
What is a confluence?
Where two rivers meet.
Where is the mouth of a river?
Where it flows into the sea.
What is the watershed?
The imaginary line surrounding a drainage basin.
What is the source of a river?
Where it begins.
What is a drainage basin?
The area drained by a river and its tributaries.
What is hydraulic power?
The force of the water eroding the bed and banks.
What is attrition?
The load rubbing against each other becoming smaller and more rounded.
What is corrasion?
The wearing away of the river banks by the load.
What is corrosion?
The chemical action of water dissolving minerals.
When does the river carry more material?
Energy levels are usually higher at the rivers source where the course is steep and narrow, energy levels drop as the river reaches the mouth. When the river loses energy it will deposit it's material.
How are upper course features created?
Vertical erosion happens as the river winds and bends to avoid areas of hard rock which creates interlocking spurs, when a river erodes over areas of hard and soft rock rapids and waterfalls may form.
How are ox-bow lakes formed?
The meanders become larger and the horseshoe shape gets tighter, when the river breaks through in flood or when it has more energy or discharge the ends join, when the energy decreases an ox bow lake is formed.
How are meanders created?
Lateral erosion widens the river channel, it erodes from left to right which forms the horse shoe meander shape, this is encouraged by the inside of the bend having a slower flow and so deposition occurs here. The force of the water is greater on the outside of the bend and so erosion occurs.
How are lower course features created?
The river, in the lower course has floodplains which are areas of land covered in flood. Levees are also formed from a build up of alluvium (the sediment deposited by rivers). Deltas are formed at the mouth of rivers, there are three different deltas and these are:
curate or fan-shaped
cuspate or arrow like
birds foot.
Causes of Flooding
1) A channel surround by steep sides has faster surface run-off (water running over the land).
2) Deforestation
3) A drainage basin existing of mainly impermeable rock.
4) Drainage basin in an urban area (faster surface run-off).
River Management
1) Dam construction
2) River engineering
3) Afforestation
4) Managed Flooding
5) Planning