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28 Cards in this Set

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Explain the general idea behind functional approaches to attitude.
Attitudes serve different functions for people, and people have attitudes about the same idea.
In Katz's classic analysis of attitude function, what four attitude functions are identified?
1. Utilitarian
2. Ego-Defensive
3. Value-Expressive
4. Knowledge
Explain the utilitarian function. What techniques are best adapted to changing attitudes serving a utilitarian function?
INSTRUMENTAL
People try to maximize good outcomes (rewards) and minimize bad outcomes (penalties).
People develop positive attitudes toward good outcomes.
Ex. a student who has a lot of successes in essay exams will develop a positive attitude toward such exams.
Ways of changing attitudes serving a utilitarian function:
1. creating new rewards and punishments
(ex. company creates incentive program for employees)
2. changing what is associated with existing rewards and punishments (ex. alter details of bonus system)
Explain the ego-defensive function. What techniques are best adapted to changing attitudes serving an ego-defensive function?
SYMBOLIC. Attitudes are based on defending one's self-image.
Ex. prejudicial attitudes toward minorities make one feel good about oneself.
Two approaches exist to change these types of attitudes:
1. Remove the threat to the ego. If a person does not feel threatened they won't feel the need to defend themselves.
2. Enlighten an individual to the defense mechanism that is behind this function. They will realize that the attitude has no substantive basis, and they will abandon it.
Explain the value-expressive function. Under what conditions are attitudes serving a value-expressive function likely to be susceptible to change?
SYMBOLIC.
People gain satisfaction from holding on to and expressing attitudes that express their values.
Ex. a person might gain satisfaction from owning a hybrid. Expresses values about energy conservation.
To change this value:
1. Some degree of dissatisfaction with the old value, thus value is not needed anymore.
2. An individual might see some different value which better expresses the underlying value.
Ex. Electric cars are better than hybrid cars.
Explain the knowledge function. What is the primary mechanism of change for attitudes that serve a knowledge function?
INSTRUMENTAL.
People have an inherent need to understand, and attitudes help them do this.
Ex. in any socio-political situation, people need to know who they should root for, and attitudes help them determine who is the "better" candidate.
To change this value:
Ambiguity: good guys do something obviously wrong, the observer doesn't know what is going on, and thus attitudes may change.
Is there consensus about a particular typology of attitude functions? Is there a broad distinction (among functions) that is common to alternative functional typologies?
-There is no consensus on a set of functions that is universal.
-The only common distinction is that there are symbolic and instrumental functions of attitudes.
Explain symbolic functions of attitude.
-based on symbolic associations with the object, and reflect moral values of the persuadee.
Explain instrumental functions of attitude.
-based on intrinsic qualities of the object.
Describe the most common procedure for assessing the function of a given attitude.
-most common procedure involved classifying relevant free response data.
What is "free response data"?
-derived from open-ended questions
-individuals have the ability to explain their attitudes, and one can classify this information into relevant functional categories.
According to functional approaches, what is the key to effective persuasion?
-matching the persuasive appeal to the functional basis of the argument.
-an instrumentally based argument is not going to have an effect on an attitude that is symbolic.
What is self-monitoring?
-the monitoring or control of one's self-presentation, and the shaping of one's behavior accordingly.
Describe (broadly) the characteristics of high- and low- self-monitors.
High- concerned about the way they present themselves, and thus change their behavior to adapt.
Low- not concerned with how they present themselves, thus not changing their behavior to fit in different situations.
describe image-oriented advertising appeals.
appeal to the symbolic associations with the product
(seek to glamorize the product)
describe product-quality-oriented advertising appeals.
focus on the intrinsic, instrumental qualities of the product
ex. how well a car drives.
are high self-monitors generally more persuaded by image-oriented or by product-quality-oriented appeals?
image- they cater to the symbolic basis of the attitude.
are low self-monitors generally more persuaded by image-oriented or by product-quality-oriented appeals?
Product quality, because they cater to the instrumental basis of the attitude.
Why are image-oriented and product-quality-oriented differently persuasive for low- and high- self-monitors?
High are more likely to remember seeing an image, because these ads speak to the fundamental basis of the attitude.
Explain how advertisers may tailor appeals to different media outlets based on these appeals.
-advertisers seek to appeal to the fundamental basis of the attitudes of their audiences.
Ads for a car might differ in "Car and Driver" vs. "GQ".
-each appeals to different types of self-monitors,
-car and driver=instrumental (product-quality based appeal),
-GQ=symbolic (image-oriented appeals)
Explain how the nature of the attitude object influences attitude functions. Give examples of objects for which attitudes likely serve a generally symbolic function.
instrumental attitudes- based on the usefulness or intrinsic properties of the objects.
-ex. objects like air conditioners or pain killer brand.
symbolic attitudes- based on the symbolic associations with an object.
-ex. class rings or perfume brands (status is key)
are image-oriented and product-quality-oriented persuasive appeals likely to be equally effective for these different sorts of objects? Explain.
not likely.
-appeals to psychological needs of receivers in ways that unmatched appeals do not.
ex. symbolic appeal will not work to persuade an instrumental attitude.
Explain how objects can differ in the degree to which they accomodate multiple attitude functions. Give examples of "multifunctional" attitude objects.
-attitude objects can accomodate BOTH symbolic and instrumental functions.
-ex. homes, cars, the choice of where one lives or goes to school.
For what sorts of objects will self-monitoring differences play a larger role in determining the relative effectiveness of image-oriented and product-quality-oriented appeals? Explain.
Multifunctional objects, because differences in self-monitoring come into play.