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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 2 major fluid compartments?
Extracellular (ECF)
Intracellular (ICF)
What are the principle cations in ICF;ECF?
K+; Na+
What is the major system responsible for H2O gain?
Digestive, plus sm amt from cellular metaboloism
What is the major system responsible for H2O loss?
Urinary, plus sm amt from perspiration and respiration
4 principles of fluid and electrolyte regulation?
1. Homeostatic mechanisms respond to changes in ECF NOT ICF.
2. There are no receptors that directly monitor fluid and electrolytes.
3. H2O can not be actively transported (only diffusion and osmosis)
4. Amt of fluid and electrolytes increase if dietary gains exceed losses and vice versa
Effects of ADH?
Stimulated by decreased BP/ Blood vol.

Causes H2O retention at kidneys and excretion of more concentrated urine

Causes increased thirst (hypothalamus)
Effects of Aldosterone?
Stimulated by decreased BP/blood vol. and renin-angiotensin sys.
And decreased Na+ or increased K+.

Causes Na+ reabsorption and K+ excretion along DCT and collecting sys of kidneys.
Effects of Natriuretic Peptides?
Stimulated by excess stretching of baroreceptors in heart (increased BP/Blood vol.)

Causes decreased H2O absorption at kidneys,
inhibits ADH + aldosterone,
increases urine production, and decreases thrist
What 2 pressures effect the exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid?
Net Hydrostatic pressure - forces fluid from plasma into interstitial fluid

Net Colloid Osmotic Pressure -
forces fluid from interstitial fluid into plasma
H2O percentage of body weight in males; females?
Homeostatic responses to severe H2O loss?
Osmoreceptors detect increased ECF osmotic concentration

Cause increased ADH, decreased urine production, and increased thirst.
Homeostatic responses to severe H2O gain?
Osmoreceptors detect decrease in ECF osmotic concentration

Inhibit ADH, Increase urine production, decrease thirst.
Types of acids?
1. Volatile - leave solution easily ex: H2CO3

2. Fixed - only leave body by kidneys ex: H2SO4, H3PO4

3. Organics- from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism ex: lactic acid, ketone bodies.
3 types of buffer systems?
1. Bicarbonate - primary for blood

2. Phosphate - primary for kidneys

3. Protein - ex. albumin/ hemoglobin