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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
All children in Pre-K are disfluent.
75-80% of all people who stutter become fluent.
20% of all people who stutter remain disfluent.
Stuttering exists world-wide.
What percentage of the world's population are people who stutter?
1 percent
What are the 3 elements of stuttering?
1. Core behaviors
2. Secondary behaviors
3. Disfluency Related Feelings and Attitudes
What are core behaviors of stuttering?
1. Repitions-more than 2
2. prolongations
3. blocks
What is fluency?
Natural, effortless speech flow. Speaking with a forward flow of speech. No interuptions to the speech flow.
What is disfluency?
An interuption in speech, whether it is normal or not
What is stuttering?
Abnormally high frequency and/or duration of stoppages in the forward flow of speech.
What are core behaviors?
Basic behaviors that occur first in the development of stuttering. GENERAL order.
What are four things that would be repeated in the core behaviors to cause stuttering?
1. sound
2. syllable
3. whole word
4. phrase
What is a prolongation?
sound or airflow continues but mvmt. of articulators stopped—1/2 second or more. Holding sound too long, most likely stuttering
What is a block?
inappropriate stoppage of airflow, voice or articulators---1/2 second or more
What are secondary behaviors?
Patterns which develop secondary to core behaviors as stutterer attempts to avoid stuttering. (People’s reaction to their stuttering.
What are two secondary behaviors?
escape and avoidance behaviors.
What are escape behaviors?
(starters—old term) to get speech process going, things people do to hide f/ their stuttering. Things people do to fill the space.
Ex. eye blinks, jaw jerks, knee slap, interjection of sounds, etc.
What are avoidance behaviors?
(postponements—old term)
a. word substitutions
b. word circumlocutions
c. situations
When is the onset of stuttering?
18 months-12 years old.
Usually between 2-5 years old.
The onset of stuttering coincides with the period of rapid expansion of speech and language skills.
How many people in 100 are PWS?
More boys recover spontaneously (no therapy)from stuttering than girls.
What are the 3 characteristics of learned behavior?
1. anticipation-predict difficult words
2. consistency- stutter on the same words
3. adaptation- stuttering decreased through repeated readings.
What are the "loci" of stuttering (the place where stuttering occurs more frequently)?
-initial position (word and sentence)
-purposeful speech vs. isolated words
-content vs. function words (not in very young children)
-longer words
-stressed syllables
-increased length and complexity of language
What are some fluency enhancing conditions (stuttering decreases under the following conditions)?
-speaking alone
-speaking in unison
-speaking to animal, infant, or toy
-delayed auditory feedback
-aside comments

May reduce the communicative stress
May change use of the motor speech system
In general: slower rate/less effort/air flow
What ratio of PWS have a family history of stuttering?
What type of person is at the highest risk to pass it on?
female who stutters or has family history of stuttering.
Stuttering is multifactoral-integration of both genetic and environmental factors.
Environmental factors would be an overload of language learning.