• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definitive/ Final host
Host in which parasite achieves sexual maturity
Temporary host
Serves as a temporary but necessary environment to complete immature life cycles
Paratenic or Transport Host
Host that isn't needed but used to reach a necessary host
Abnormal or Aberrant host
Animal not needed to complete host life cycle, in the case the host is a dead end, often host can be symptomatic from a parasite that doesn't usually infect a particular animals
Arthropoda or other invertebrates that serve as hosts for parasites - can be intermediate or transport host. Vectors transmit parasites from host to host and can be a mechanical or biological vector. Mechanical vectors aren't required in the normal life cycle of the parasite, biological vectors are required in the life cycle.
Reservoir host
Infected animals which serve as source of infection for other animals, this isn't limited to parasites so could include other infectious agents. Reservoir hosts are atypical hosts for the particular parasite that were considering.
Sylvatic reservoir is a wild animal reservoir
Prepatent period
The time required following infection to reach reproductive maturity in the definitive host
What are major characteristics of class insecta?
1. Adults have 6 legs
2. Three body segments: head, thorax, abdomen
3. Digestive tract contains salivary glands that may contain pathogens
4. Oxygen diffusion occurs thorough spiracles
5. Nervous system contains ganglia and nerve cords often used as target for insecticides
Describe the types of metamorphosis that some insects undergo.
Some insects undergo complete metamorphosis, the larvae bear no resemblance to the adults.
Others undergo incomplete/partial metamorphosis where the larvae resembles a small adult. This stage of growth is often targeted by pesticides using analogs of juvenile hormones.
What are few aspect of flea anatomy?
Undergo complete metamorphosis, wingless and laterally compressed.
What is the most successful flea? Where is it found?
The most successful is the cat flea, Ctenocephalidis felis felis. It's found worldwide on cats, dogs, ferrets. Less common includes the canine and human flea which can occasionally be found on dogs and cats.
T/F: Flea prefer high humidity and low temperatures.
False, fleas prefer warm temps. Lice on the other hand prefer high humidity, lower temps.
Name the four stages of the cat flea and where they occur (ie. on or off the host).
Egg: may be laid on the host by the female adult, but should fall off and hatch in a few days. Best hatching when humidity and temps are high.
Larvae: this stages occurs off the host and feeds off flea feces. Generally larva can be found in synthetic carpet. This stage last for about a week off the host.
Pupa: sticky, silky cocoon that developing flea can take around 5 days to become an adult. During cold temps, adults stay in the pupa for a few months off the host.
Adults: live on the host for the entirety of their life.
What are the other hosts cat fleas can infest?
Confined calves and goats. Likely due to barn cats.
Rodents are infect with what other type of flea....
Rodent flea
What type of metamorphosis do lice species undergo? Where do they undergo their life cycles?
Incomplete or partial, however they will molt as they grow. Lice spend their entire life on the host. Eggs or nits are "glued" to the host hair or feathers. The life cycle is around 3 weeks. In the winter, outdoor animals often become infested with lice whereas indoor animals become infested in the summer. Stressed animals seem to be susceptible to lice infestations.
What are the two types of lice? What are the hosts?
Anoplura are sucking lice. Mallophaga are chewing or biting live. Lice have a variety of host species, however each host has a spp. specific lice, therefore dogs can't give lice to cats, only other dogs. They are often site specific as well.
What are the best ways to diagnose a lice infestation?
Observation of the lice and eggs, presence of clinical signs such as pruritis, hair loss and poor hair coat, and dermatitis.
In severe cases, sucking lice can cause anemia and general malaise.
What are the treatments or methods of removal for lice? What is the protocol for treatment using pesticides?
Physical removal such as grooming. Pesticides include pyrethins/pyrethoids, macrolides, and neonicotinoids. Adults are not hard to kill, BUT eggs aren't killed. Treatment must be repeated in 2 weeks. All animals possibly infected must be treated and any bedding/carpets must be treated as well.
What animals do you commonly see lice on?
Food animals, wild birds and poultry. In these animals the lice is well tolerated.
What type of life cycle do flies undergo? What stages of flies cause problems?
Complete metamorphosis. Adult non biting and biting and larval flies.
What sort of problems do flies cause?
General annoyance, disease transmission, allergic reactions, and parasitism.
Describe characteristics of adult non biting flies Musca domestica?
Include gnats, common house fly, and filth flies. Can serve as disease vectors but generally more of a nuisance than anything. Eggs are laid in decaying material.
Describe the characteristics of the adult non biting Musca automnalis?
Also referred to as a face fly. Females can be considered parasitic because they eat secretions such as tears. Will see commonly around eyes, eggs however are laid in fresh manure. Tend to irritate the mucosa causing inflammation and tearing. Additionally can be a mechanical spreader of bovine pinkeye. Lays eggs in fresh manure.
What are some problems that all adult biting flies can cause?
All transmit disease as either biological or mechanical vectors, have the ability to induce an immune response, and cause general annoyance.
Describe the adult biting fly Stomoxys calcitrans.
Also know as the stable fly and female adult fly is really the only one that takes blood meals. The fly visits the host 1-2 times a day, prefers to bite legs and flanks, and lays eggs in decaying material. Also has a specilized proboscis so bites are painful. Mostly an annoyance but can cause fly bite dermatitis.
Describe the adult biting fly Haematobia irritans?
Also know as the horn fly and both males and females take blood meals. Eggs are laid in fresh manure, adults are resident parasites that sit on the dorsal region of animals unless its hot, they move ventrally. These flies are very annoying because they feed around 20 times a day and cause decreased production. They can also cause fly bite dermatitis.
Describe the adult biting fly family Tabanidae.
Family includes horse and deer flies. These flies have large eyes, large stout bodies and also have blades as sharp teeth making bites very painful. Only females take blood meals and lay eggs near water. They are also great mechanical vector of disease.
Describe some characteristics of Mosquitos.
Mosquitos are small delicate flies with long mouthparts. Females take blood meals and lay eggs in water regardless of it being fresh or stagnant. Of important health concerns is that they are vectors for heartworm, avian malaria, and equine encephalitis. They can also cause fly bite allergies.
Describe the small adult biting fly Simulidae.
Also known as black flies or buffalo gnats. Called buffalo because they have a characteristic hump on their back. Eggs are laid in rapidly moving water. These flies like to swarm and bite the ears of horses and dogs, also cause fly bite dermatitis. Rare cases of death due to swarms. They are a minor concern of a disease vector for avian hemoprotozoa.
Describe the small adult biting fly Cuclioides.
Also called no see ums and midges. Easily squeeze through screen doors. Larvae is found mostly in moist soil or water. Adults are crepuscular or nocturnal. Seem to be a problem mostly in horses causing annoying, fly bite dermatitis or sweet itch, and are also a vector of blue tongue and avian hemoprotozoa.
What are some of the ways flies can be controlled other than typical pesticides?
1. Mechanical methods such as fly masks, screen doors, and fly sheets.
2. Bait traps using pheromones and bug zappers which are less efficient than bait traps.
3. Getting rid of manure, oral pesticides and parasitic wasps that kill the pests.
What methods of pesticides can be used to control fly parasites?
1. In food animals, we can use dust bags, back rubbers, ear tags and pour on macrolides and pyrethroids.
2. In horses we can use spray or pour on as well that are mostly pyrethroids. General physical barriers are helpful with horses as well.
What is myiasis and what is it caused by?
Myiasis is caused by larval flies that invade body cavities or tissues. There are facultative myiasis that include fly strike and maggots. There are also obligatory that include bot flies, grubs, screw worms and worbles.
How do larval spiracles breath after burrowing into a host?
They breath through posterior breathing plates.
What are the two facultative myiasis fly strike species.
Myiasis generally caused by blow fly larvae Calliphorids or flesh flies Sarcophagids. Blow flies are metallic blue, bronze or green. Fresh flies are large house like flies with a red bottom.
What are some general life cycle and clinical implications of fly strike species?
Females are attracted to secretions from wounds, fecal material, etc. Eggs are laid in decaying material where the larvae feed on necrotic tissue. This attracts more flies, toxins are released from flies causing toxemia and resulting in lethargy in the animal. Maggots must be removed or killed using an insecticide, antibiotics must be used as well. Keep wounds clean and don't dehorn animals during fly season.
Describe the specific obligatory myiasis fly strike species screwworm.
Species is Cochliomyia hominovorax. These species require living tissue and can make wounds much worse. Mostly eradicated because males have been sterilized. Occasional cases are still reported and suspected cases are a reportable parasite.
What form of obligatory myiasis occurs in the US?
Fly larvae are the most common form. Called bots, warble or grub. Adults have a very short life span and don't feed. The larvae develops within the host then leaves host to pupate in the environment.
Describe horse bots.
Also called Gastrophilus, the horse bots lay their eggs on the legs or face where they can be licked off and are stimulated to hatch by the licking. The larvae then travel to the stomach where they can remain for up to a year. They are passed in manure where they pupate. Rarely cause problems, can be treated with ivermectin, or using warm water to rinse off legs before horses lick them.
Describe the small animal bots.
Species is also known as Cuterebra and are sometimes called a rodent bot fly. Infect mostly rodents and rabbits. Eggs are laid near burrows where the larvae are picked up and develop in a subcutaneous cyst and then they're ready to pupate, they fall on the ground. Dogs and cats can pick these up especially on the head and neck area, where a boil like sore is formed. Owners will notice a lump, possible movement in the wound, and purulent discharge if infection present. These bot larvae MUST be careful removed to prevent the release of toxins that can cause a serious allergic reaction.
Describe the myiasis cattle grubs.
Called warbles and heel flies, scientific name is Hypoderma bovis and lineatum. Cattle get really annoyed with the adults. Eggs are glued to the hairs of the lower body, the larvae hatch and burrow into the skin where they migrate. The H. lineatum migrates near the esophagus and H. bovus migrates near the spinal cord for 2-4 months. After this both species migrate to the subcutaneous tissue on the back, where they make a breathing hole and remain for 5-8 weeks. They crawl out and pupate on the ground. The larvae can cause tissue damage, also problems with the esophagus and nervous system. May infect goats and horses. Treat with macrolides or organophosphates. Relatively uncommon in the US.
Describe the myiasis nasal bot.
Specifically part of the oestrus spp. that typically infects small ruminants. Larvae migrate to nasal passages and sinuses causing nasal discharge. Treat with macrolides.
What type of clinical problems can occurs due to fleas?
Allergic reactions can occurs due to saliva antigens, mild to extreme flea bite hypersensitivities, fleas also vector for tapes, Bartonella, possibly cat scratch fever. In addition in young animals flea bite anemia can occur.
What are some possible adulticide treatments and immature stage treatments for fleas?
Neonicotinoids, fipronil, spinosad, pyrethroids, pyrethins, indoxacarb/oxadiazine... Lots of thing are ADULTICIDES!

Lufenuron also known as Program inhibits chitin formation and acts as a develop inhibitor.
Methoprene in Frontline Plus and Pyriproxyfen in Vectra 3-D act as growth regulators by utilizing juvenile hormone analogs.