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234 Cards in this Set

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Paragonimus kellicoti: Common Name

Lung Fluke

Paragonimus kellicoti: Definitive Hosts

Dogs, Cats, and People

How is Paragonimus kellicoti acquired?

Ingestion of uncooked or poorly cooked crayfish

What are the symptoms of disease with Paragonimus kellicoti?

Respiratory disease: Dyspnea, hemoptysis, pneumothorax

How do you diagnose Paragonimus kellicoti?

fecal floatatiion, eggs in sputum, BAL fluid, and lung biopsy

Paragonimus kellicoti: Lung Fluke

How does a radiograph appear with Paragonimus kellicoti?

Increased alveolar opacity on radiographs

Nodules containing parasites demonstrated by CT scan

Complications of advanced Paragonimus kellicoti cases

Pleural effusion



Common Name for Nanophyetus samicola

Salmon Poisoning Fluke

Nanophyetus samicola's definitive hosts

Dogs, cats, fish eating mammals (bear, raccoon, mink, etc)

Nanophyetus samicola's intermediate hosts

Oxytrema silicula (snail)

Salmonid fish

How is Nanophyetus samicola acquired?

Ingestion of metacercaria in kidneys, muscles, and fins of raw salmonid fish

Nanophyetus samicola is a vector for?

Salmon poisoning by Neorickettsia helminthoeca

What are the signs of salmon poisoning?

Hemorrhagic enteritis


it is clinically distinguishable from parvo!

How is Nanophyetus samicola diagnosed?

clinical signs and trematode eggs on fecal exam

Differential for parvo!

How is Nanophyetus samicola treated?

Praziquantel, 20 mg/kg TID

Is Nanophyetus samicola zoonotic?

Yes, but no rickettsial disease in humans

Nanophyetus samicola: Salmon Poisoning Fluke

Dicrocoelium dendriticum's common name

Lancet Liver Fluke

Dicrocoelium dendriticum's Definitive Hosts

Cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, wild ungulates, rodents, rabbits, and humans

(Bile ducts)

Dicrocoelium dendriticum's Intermediate Hosts

terrestrial snails


Dicrocoelium dendriticum's lifecycle

Miracida hatch from egg when ingested by snail, asexual reproduction in the snail,

emerge in slime ball,

ingested by the ant,

infect the brain,

remain attached to vegetation,

ingested by grazing DH,

Metacercaria invade entire biliary system within hours of ingestion

Dicrocoelium dendriticum live where in the DH?

The bile ducts and liver

Dicrocoelium dendriticum's severity?

Low pathogenicity compared to Fasicola

How do you diagnose Dicrocoelium dendriticum, the lancet liver fluke?

Clinical signs

trematode eggs on fecal exam

Dicrocoelium dendriticum

looks just like Platynosomum fastosum (liver poisoning fluke) too!

Platynosomum fastosum: Common Name

Liver poisoning fluke

Platynosomum fastosum: Definitive Host

Felines: domestic, feral, and wild

(in bile ducts)

Platynosomum fastosum: Intermediate hosts

Sublima octona (pulmonate snail)

Isopods (pill bugs)

Lizards (Geckos)- may be a paratenic host?

Platynosomum fastosum: Pathway

-Metacercaria ingested when cats eat lizard

-Migrate up bile ducts

-Adults in bile ducts and bladder

Platynosomum fastosum Symptoms

vomiting, diarrhea, icterus (if severe)

Platynosomum fastosum: Diagnosis

Clinical signs and eggs on fecal float

Platynosomum fastosum: treatment

Praziquantel 20 mg/kg

Alaria sp. Intermediate Hosts




Alaria sp. Definitive hosts



Alaria sp. lifecycle

Mesocercaria stage

larval stage capable of being passed host to host

Lactogenic transmission

Alaria sp. clinical signs

Aberrany migration of mesocercaria associated with adverse effects

Is Alaria Zoonotic?

It does have potential

mostly in trappers and those with outdoor life style

Acanthocephala: Common Name

Thorny-headed worms

Acanthocephala: Where are the adults parasitic?

In the digestive tract of vertebra hosts

Mammals, fish, birds, reptiles

Acanthocephala's morphology



-male/female repro system

-No digestive system: nutriendts are absorbed across the integument

-Hooked proboscis (holdfast) and flattened appearance in situ bears superficial resemblance to tapeworms



Acanthocephala has what type of lifecycle?

Obligate indirect

Acanthocephala Intermediate host?


Acanthocephala has had association with?

Swine production

Is Acanthocephala zoonotic?

Incidentally, yes

Macroacanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

Once an important parasite in swine production

on the comeback because of "range produced pork"

Adult tapeworms do not occur in the small intestine of swine when observed at necropsy

Oncicola canis

In Dogs (coyotes, foxes) and cats (bobcats, lynx)

May be more prevalent than we know, eggs do not float well

rare clinical disease

Prosthenorchis elegans

enzootic in primate populations

important in lab and zoo primates

infected animal, close proximity to suitable intermediate host population (cockroaches)

accumulation of clinically significant worm burdens

Prosthenorchis elegans Clinical signs

Trauma in definitive host caused by penetration of proboscis

attach, release, reattach associated with significant pain and trauma to intestinal mucosa

Gut peroration and peritonitis

Prosthenorchis elegans: Severity?

Significant morbidity and mortality

- diarrhea, dysorexia, and death

Prosthenorchis elegans: treatment & control



Control by treatment of infective egg shedders and removal of intermediate hosts

General Morphology of Tapeworms

-Dorsoventrally flattened

-Bilaterally symmertrical

-Segmented (scolex and proglottids w/ repro organs)

-Solid body made up of parenchyma

General Lifecycle of tapeworms

Obligate indirect life cycle: eggs passed in feces of DH, egges ingested by IH (hatch and encyst), infected tissues ingested by DH complete life cycle

Are tapeworms host specific?


-a high degree of host specificity for DH (cat, dog, human)

-specific intermediate host as well


Beef tapeworm: human only DH, Cows only IH~

Types of tapeworms

cyclophyllidian and taeniid

Cyclophyllidian Tapeworms are unique because

They have a rostellum at the apical end of the scolex (hooked and unhooked)

How many primary families of tapeworms are there in the cyclophyllidian category?


Taeniid tapeworms

have a scolex with hooked rostellum and 4 muscular suckers

Long, slit like brotheria (sp)

Taeniid tapeworms infective stage

Mestacestode stage in endothermic mammals is infective to the definitive host


Single bladder, 1 scolex


cycsticercus that has begun to elongate and segment


Single bladder, many scolices


Special cysts with thousands of scolices

Taenia sp: Disease

disease from encysted metacestode stage in the INTERMEDIATE HOST

Production losses from condemned livers and other tissues where metacestode stage is encysted

Types of Taenia sp.

T. pisiformis: Dog (DH)- Rabbit (IH)

T. hydatigena: Dog - livestock/wild ungulates

T. Ovis: Dog - Sheep

T. taeniaformis: Cat-Rodent

T. saginata: Human- Cow

T. Solium: Human- Pig

T. pisiformis

hosts, signs, treatment, prevention

IH: Rabbit

DH: Dog

No clinical signs in dogs

Tx: anticestodal drugs (praziquantel/episprantel) & fenbendazole

Prevention: Limit predatory behavior

T. taeniaformis

hosts, signs, treatment, prevention

IH: Rodents

DH: Cats

No clinical signs in cats

Tx: praziquantel, episprantel, fenbendazole

Prevention: Limit predatory behavior

Dipylidium caninum's common name

Flea Tapeworm

Dipylidium caninum

life cycle, morphology, etc

paired genital pores

small retractable hooks on rostellum

4 muscular suckers

Attaches in small intestines of cats, dogs, and occasionally people

Obligate Indirect Lifecycle

- IH: Fleas and lice that ingest egg packets

-DH: infected by ingesting metacestode stage in the IH

Dipylidium caninum

Flea Tapeworm: Dipylidium caninum

disease, treatment, prevention, zoonotic?

No overt signs of disease

accurate diagnosis necessary for treatment which is ONLY done with praziquantel or episprantel

Flea control is essential

Can be zoonotic!

Dipylidium caninum

Dipylidium caninum

Dipylidium caninum

Taenia tapeworm eggs

Taenia Tapeworm

What are the two Echinococcus sp.

E. granulosus

E. multilocularis

E. granulosus in general

Unilocular hydatid cysts (one single fluid filled chamber)

canines, rodents/sheep, other large game mammals

E. multilocularis in general


multilocular (alveolar) hydatid cysts [multiple chambers with multiple scolices]

Foxes and wolves/rodents

Hydatid Sand from Echinococcus

Echinococcus multilocularis: Common name

Alveolar Hydatid Tapeworm

Echinococcus multilocularis: Intermediate Hosts





With Echinococcus multilocularis, who gets infected?

Alveolar (multilocular) hydatid yst occurs in IH

-resembles bunch of fluid filled grapes

Echinococcus multilocularis: Importance

Important zoonotic disease when it occurs in humans

Hydatid Size

Hydatid's are very tiny in comparison to common tapeworms

(Echinococcus sp.)

How do humans become infected with Echinococcus?

By unknowingly ingesting tapeworm eggs from various sources contaminated with dog feces

Dogs often roll in feces of wild canids and transport infective eggs on their fur

Can be aerosolized in household dust

Pulmonary Hydatid Disease is associated with what tapeworms?

Echinococcus granulosus

E. multilocularis

Where do hydatid cysts form?

They form in the liver and lungs

How do the lungs get involved in Hydatid Disease?

Pulmonary involvement by hematogeneous dissemination from hepatic lesions

What are the symptoms of Pulmonary Hydatid Disease in general?

cough, dyspnea, chest pain from tissue compression by growing cysts

What are the symptoms of Pulmonary Hydatid Disease when it ruptures into the bronchi?

hemoptysis, expectoration of cyst fluid/membrane, anaphylactic shock, asthma-like symptoms, pneumonia, sepsis

What are the symptoms of Pulmonary Hydatid Disease when it ruptures into the pleural cavity?

pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and empyema

Imaging of Pulmonary Hydatid Disease

Radiography: solitary or multiple round opacities mimic tumors

Treatment of Pulmonary Hydatid Disease

Primarily surgery

Alveolar cysts require radical resection of entire parasitic lesion

Albendazole, mebendazole, and praziquantel for inoperable cases

Taenia vs. Echinococcus

Taenia: Long adults & not zoonotic

Echinococcus: Small adults & zoonotic

Canines are the DH for both!

Ehhs are indistinguishable

Mesocestoides Sp. general features

Scolex w/ unarmed rostellum & 4 muscular suckers

Segmented body

Proglottids with central genital pore (parauterine organ)

Distinctive eggs

What type of lifecycle do Mesocestoides sp. have?

Obligate indirect

Onchosphere (eggs) ingested by arthropod

Tetrathyridium (metacestode) develops in 2nd IH

Dogs and cats are the DH

Are Mesocestoides sp. zoonotic?

Yes, if they ingest the tetrathyridium

Which could happen if ingestion of poorly cooked frog legs occurs

Mesocestoides sp: Clinical Signs


Dysorexia/Wt. loss



What causes the disease process with Mesocestoides Sp?

Asexual reproduction of worms in host and invasion of peritoneum (massive worm burdens voided in feces)

How do you treat Mesocestoides sp?


Surgical removal of worms

Lavage of peritoneum

Anoplocephala perfoliata is pathogenic in which species?


Where does Anoplocephala perfoliata do its damage?

ulceration and reactive inflammation at illeocecal junction

predisposes the horse to colic

May lead to intussusception and rupture of bowel wall

Diagnosis of Anoplocephala perfoliata

Proglottids are wider than they are long

pyriform onchosphere in egg

It is a challenge because the eggs are not always present


Monezia's DHs are?

Cattle, sheep, goats, and camelids

Anoplocephala sp. uses what as their IH?

Oribatid Mites

Anoplocephala perfoliata: What is a distinct feature

Scolex with "lappets"

Seasonal epidemiology of Anoplocephala perfoliata & Monezia

July through October

Treatment of Anoplocephala perfoliata

Pyrantel (Caution for use in foals, gestating mares, and breeding stallions)

Praziquantel combined with macrocyclic lactone

Monezia sp look and location

Ribbon like in the small intestion

Pathogenicity of Monezia

Generally non-pathogenic

young lambs 1st season on pasture considered at risk

Prepatent Period for Monezia

37-40 days

Treatment of Monezia



Pasture renovation and reseeding to break up breeding habitat for mites

Pseudophyllidean cestodes in general:

appearance, type of lifecycle, genera

Segmented tapeworms with specialized holdfast that has slit-like suckers called bothria

Aquatic lifecycle with 2 IH

2 genera of importance: Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra mansonoides

Diphyllobothrium latum: IHs

1st: Copepod

2nd: Fish

Diphyllobothrium latum: DH

Endothermic vertebrate (dog, cat, bear, etc)

Diphyllobothrium latum: Zoonotic potential?


What is Diphyllobothrium latum associated with?

B12 iron deficiency anemia in humans

What do the Diphyllobothrium latum eggs look like?

They are distinctive gold-brown with operculum, the "lid"

What is Diphyllobothrium latum's common name?

Broad Fish Tapeworm

Diphyllobothrium latum diagnosis

Proglottids in stool

LARGE tapeworm, strobilla reported 12 ft worm

Diphyllobothrium latum treatment


Spriometra mansonoides: lifecycle

An aquatic 2 IH tapeworm.

Once it gets into the 2nd IH, it turns into a plurocercoid and it will reproduce ASEXUALLY and is transmissible back to the DH

What type of tapeworm is Spriometra mansonoides?

A Pseudophyllidian

Spriometra mansonoides DH

Cat and Dog

Spriometra mansonoides: zoonotic?

Yes, infected humans serve as a 2nd intermediate host

Poorly cooked frog eggs, frog tx for wounds in other cultures

Trematodes ALWAYS have this as their first IH


Otherwise, a most aquatic lifecycle

Trematodes are referred to as

Lung and Liver Flukes

Adult morphology of trematodes

Dorsoventrally flattened

Bilaterally symmetrical

monecious & hermaphroditicc

Where are trematodes parasitic?

In all systems of vertebra DHs!

Respiratory, GI, Biliary, Circulatory, etc

Trematodes from the ingestion of metacercaria encysted on vegetation

Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke- cattle, sheep, gosts, humans)

Paramphistomum sp (Rumen/Stomach- cattles, sheep, goats)

Trematodes from the ingestion of metacercaria encysted in fish, crawdad, crabs, etc

Nanophytes salmincola (cat/dog [vector for nenorickettsia helminthoeca aka salmon poisoning])

Paragonimus kellicotti (lung fluke- cats, dogs, people)

Trematodes from the ingestion of metacercaria encysted in insects/invertebrates

Dicrocoelium dendriticum (cattle, sheep, pigs)

Platynosum fastosum (cat/dog)

Fasicola Hepatica: Common Name

Liver Fluke

Fasicola Hepatica: DH

Cattle, sheep, goats

How is Fasicola Hepatica acquired?

ingestion of encysted metacercaria on vegetation

Fasicola Hepatica: Disease and symptoms

Cause of liver disease:

Anemia, hypoproteinemia, bottle jaw (edematous swelling intermandibular space, abdomen)

Progressive weakness and loss of condition

Fasicola Hepatica: Pathology

Fibrosis of liver tissue

Hypertrophy of bile ducts

Livers are condemned at slaughter

Fasicola Hepatica: Treatment



Fasicola Hepatica: Herd breakouts

associated with drought conditions because the shrinking water line is exposes green vegetation that the cattle want to graze on and BAM! now they have liver flukes....

Mesocestoides sp.

Anoplocephala sp.

Trematodes from the ingestion of metacercaria encysted on vegetation

Anoplocephala sp

Trematodes from the ingestion of metacercaria encysted in fish, crawdad, crabs, etc

Anoplocephala sp

with lappets on scolex

Trematodes from the ingestion of metacercaria encysted in insects/invertebrates




Diphyllobothrium latum

Diphyllobothrium latum

Diphyllobothrium latum

Diphyllobothrium latum lifecycle

Spriometra mansonoides

Typical trematode

Fasicola Hepatica

Fasicola Hepatica's damage

Fasicola Hepatica's damage

Diptera Flies: General morphology

2 pairs of wings: one set for flying, one set for balance.

6 legs

segmented body

Different mouthparts for different feeding strategies

What does a vestigal mouth part indicate?

That they fly is non-feeding

Parasitic stages of Diptera Flies

Adult and Larvae

Almost never both stages though

What are the major groups of Diptera Flies?



House Flies

Bot Flies

Sand Flies, Moquitoes, and Midges: body

Small, delicate weak fliers

Sand Flies, Moquitoes, and Midges: habitat


Sand Flies, Moquitoes, and Midges: important species



Simulium (black or buffalo flies)

Lutzomyia/Phlebotomus: IH for? Habitat?

Intermediate host for Leishmania sp.

Moist, dark habitats

Cullicoides: Causes? Vector for? Habitat?

Queensland itch (hypersensitivity reaction)

Vector for Blue Tongue Virus

Stagnate, nasty, dirty water

Simulium (Black Flies): Bite? Causes? Habitat?

Painfu bite, big swarms

Depression, dysorexia, subcutaneous edema

fresh/clean, fast flowing water

Sand flies, Mosquitoes, Midges: Gender roles

Females are the blood suckers and require a blood meal for sexual maturity/ovarian development

Males are typically plant eaters

Mosquitos: In general

Backyard nuisance

Associated with disease transmission


Most common species

Aedes albopictus

Vector for Heartworm

Distinguished by white bars

Daylight biters

Mosquitoes: metamorphosis

Complex metamorphosis

larvae aquatic and non parasitic

What roles (and in what diseases) do mosquitoes play a role?

Obligate intermediate host for:

Heartworm and Malaria

Biologic vectors for various arboviruses

Mosquitoes: Prevention

Remove breeding sites:

containers filled with water

clean gutters

remove excess vegetation

Use repellents and CO2 traps during outdoor activities

Horse Flies: body

Strong and robust

These are big bullies essentially

Horse flies: when are they active?

During the day, and they are strong fliers

Horse flies: Development

They develop slowly

-one generation per year!

-commonly, they emerge synchronously with local outbreaks

Horse Flies: Common species in SE

April - September

Tabanus- Horse fly

Chrysops- Deer fly

Horse Flies: Feeding habits

-Repetitive feeders

-females only

-SLASHING mouthparts

-Relentless with a painful bite

(They will chase you)

-The bites can attract other flies that want to come in and lay their eggs like Drashia

What are horse flies/ Tabanus important vectors for?

Mechanical vectors for Equine infectious anemia

Where do horse flies like to hang out?

Water, decaying organic matter (mulch, manure, and the like)

House Flies and Relatives: Size?

Medium to small flies with superficially similar morpholgy

Where do house flies and their relatives like to lay their eggs?

They oviposit in moist organic materal

House flies and relatives: metamorphosis? Attractions? Types?

Complex metamorphosis

Attracted to excrements, rotting flesh, and filth

Non-biting and biting flies

Biting House Flies: Species

Haematobia irritans

Stomoxys calcitrans

Non-Biting House Flies: Species

Musca domestica

Musca autumalis

Musca domestica: common name, type, host for?

Common house fly


Mechanical vector for salmonella and a lot of other pathogens

Obligate IH for Draschia/Habronema

Musca autumalis: common name, host/vector, found where?

Non biting

Face fly

Vector and obligate IH for Thelazia, Pink Eye

Found on face, feeds on ocular/nasal discharges

Chases biting flies off to feed on oozing blood

Musca autumalis: reproduction

Host protein required for sexual maturation

Oviposit in fresh feces

FRESH is mandatory

How do you control musca autumalis?

"Feed through" insecticides

organophoshate additives pass through the alimentary tract and has larvacidal activity to prevent development

Macrolide "endectocides"

drugs excreted in feces that inhibits eggs from hatching

Pyrethroid dustbags

keeps flies from following cattle into the barn

Hematobia irritans: Common name and type

Horn fly


Hematobia irritans importance?

Where are they found?

most important ectoparasite of cattle

reproduce prolifically (10-14 day lifecycle)

found on withers/shoulders, base of horns, along back, dark colored areas on cattle

90% of the time they are on or around the host

Hematobia irritans reproduction and treatment

ovipost in fresh manure

short lifecycle

Ear Tags to repel ectoparasites have increased weight in cattle

Feed through treatment with Ivomec, Ova/Larva-cidal effect of Ivomec: accidental but it works after being passed

What is an odd characteristic of the horn fly's (hematobia irritans) feeding habits?

Typically they feed with their head pointing down

Stomoxys calcitrans: common name and type of fly

Stable fly


looks like a house fly but has a very painful bite

Where do Stable Flies oviposit?

old feces, damp and decaying organic material

Stomoxys calcitrans: IH/Vector for?

Obligate Ih for Habronema (stomach worm), Trypanasoma evansi (blood-borne protoza parasite)

Vector for EIA

Stomoxys calcitran: treatment

Pyrethriod fly baits/fly strips

Sanitation is key

What makes a Blow fly distinct, visually?

Green, blue, copper, metallic color

Blow flies: lay eggs or larvae?

Blow flies lay eggs

Flesh flies appear

smaller than blow flies

dull colored

Flesh flies: deposit eggs or larvae?

Flesh flies deposit larvae

What stage is parasitic with Blow and Flesh flies?

Larval stage

What is the condition caused by a blow or flesh flies' larvae?


-primary or secondary

Tissue invasion by larval flies

Primary Myiasis

Blow or Flesh Flies that deposit larvae into normal healthy tissues or the fresh uninfected wounds. The larvae then are a primary invader of those sites like the American Screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax. They eat the healthy tissue

Secondary Myiasis

Most common. Larvae invade the suprative wounds in soiled fleece and/or hair coats. They feed on necrotic tissues as a secondary invader. Blow Flies Calliphoridae, Calliphora, Phormia, Phaencia, and Flesh Flies Sarcophagidae.

Bot Flies (Gastrophilidae)

Larvae are obligate parasites of the digestive tract and subcutaneous tissues

Life cycle of myasis-producing flies

Adult -> eggs deposited on ground -> larvae hatch on the ground -> larvae burrow into host tissues and remain there for 10 days to 12 weeks -> Pupae on ground ->Adult


Adult -> eggs deposited on/in host ->Larvae hatch on/in host ->Larvae burrow into host tissues and remain there for 10 days to 12 weeks -> Pupae on the ground -> Adult

In general, the lifecycles are the same, but there is a little bit of variation depending on which species. But, basically its similar

Reportable fly

American Screwworm is eradicated from the US,

so if you see a red eyed metallic fly, report it to the USDA.

The females only mate once, hence why sterile males are released to mate with them so that they cant get preggo

Irradiated flies

Bot Flies: In General

general they are large and robust with hair. There is no mistake about which stage is parasitic:

The adult only exists for reproduction and are only around for a couple of days making the larval stages are parasitic!!!

They are VERY host specific

Horse bots, sheep bots, cattle bots, etc!

Dermatobia hominis is the human bot fly, mainly getting it from Belize

Gastrophilous sp.: Equine Bot fly

Highly seasonal

Larvae are parasitic in the stomach, generally non-pathogenic

How would a horse get gastrophilous larva in its stomach?

Horse will lick deposited eggs off of leg, they develop in the mouth, and then migrate down to the stomach where they leave wasp-nest-like lesions.

Treatment of Bot Flies

Treatment and prevention is pretty straight forward, surgically remove them from wounds….CAREFULLLY! Do not rupture the larvae by squeezing too hard because it will induce an anaphylaxis reactions. Treatment before the larvae migrate to overwintering site- no later than November in TN

Nasal bots in sheep are typically not treated

GI bots in horses also do not require treatments but its often done anyway-

All macrocyclic lactone deworming products are effective as oral paste/gel formulations.

Hypodermatidae: Cattle Grubs

Hyupoderma sp.

Larvae are obligate parasites in healthy tissues in any anatomical location; fatal infections occur!!

Significant cause of morbidity in cattle, cattlement at risk

Robust Bot Flies: Cuterebridae

Dermatobia hominis (Human Bot Fly)

Larvae obligate parasites in healthy subcutaneous tissues

eggs deposited on mosquito, larvae hatch and penetrate host when mosquito feeds

Head Maggots: Oestridae

Oestrus spp.

Larvae obligate parasites in nasal passages and paranasal sinuses

parasites of sheep and horses. Human cases are rare

Sheep will adopt defensive posture to discourage flies from landing and laying eggs They huddle together, noses inward, and down to the ground to keep flies from annoying them. This obviously interferes with weight gain and grazing

Both Sinusitis and encephalitis may be seen, but for the most part they stay within the nasal cavity

Hind Bots (Cattle): Hypoderma bovis or lineatum

eggs attach to hair, hatch and penetrate through wounds or nasal passages where they begin migrating through the body

Bovis: migrates to the spinal canal

Cuterebra: Squirrel Bot Fly

Cats are accidental hosts

They can migrate to the brain or eyes of cats

Nothing remarkable if they don't migrate to the brain though

Aedes albopictus

Horse Fly

Horse Fly

Horn Fly

Horn Fly

Horn Fly

Stomoxys calcitrans

Stomoxys calcitrans

Biting or Non-biting fly?

Biting or Non-biting fly?

Non-biting fly

Blow Fly

metallic body

American Screwworm

red eyes

Bot Fly

Bot Fly


House Fly

House Fly