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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What approximate size are lice?

2 mm

How are lice usually transmitted?

Animal to animal contact

(less often fomites)

Chewing lice (name & description)


- parasites of birds and mammals

- wider head than thorax

- small tarsal claws

- louse colour is yellow

Sucking lice (name & description)


- parasites of mammals ONLY

- narrower head than thorax

- large pincer-like tarsal claws (for clinging to hair)

- piercing mouth parts to suck blood

- louse colour is grey to red

Lice eggs & location

Nits, securely attached to hair

Louse Life Cycle

Simple metamorphosis, spent entirely on host

Adult on skin lays nits on hair

Nymph hatches from egg (looks like adult but smaller)

Nymph molts to adult

Mallophaga problems to host


Hair/feather loss

Anoplura problems to host


Hair loss

Anemia (loss of red blood cells)

Flea Description

Small, wingless insects with powerful hind legs for jumping onto host

Piercing, blood-sucking mouth parts

Flea hosts

Dogs, cats, humans, pigs, rodents & birds

Fleas of Cats

Ctenocephalides felis

(C. felis)

Fleas of Dogs

Ctenocephalides canis

(C. canis)

Fleas of Humans

Pulex irritans (will infect dogs and cats)

Fleas of Poultry

Echidnophaga gallinacea (can infect dogs and cats)

Flea Life Cycle

Complex metamorphosis

1. Adult

2. Egg

3. Larva

4. Pupa

Adult Flea

Lives on host

Dependent on blood meals

Produce large amounts of feces (flea dirt) that has undigested blood in it

Flea dirt falls off host to ground.. feeds larvae

Susceptible to treatments

Flea Egg

Female produces many eggs that will fall onto ground to hatch

Hatch within 2 weeks

Resistant to treatments (shell)

Flea Larva

Live in environment (like rugs & baseboards)

Feed on flea dirt & other organic material

Pupate in a week to a month (depending on environment temp)

Very susceptible to treatments

Flea Pupa

Can stay in pupa for up to 1 year

Stimulated to come out by warmth, vibrations & carbon dioxide from host

Emerged flea jumps onto host

Can survive one week without FIRST blood meal

Very resistant to treatments

Main Pathology Caused by Fleas

Flea Allergy Dermatitis

-Host can be allergic to saliva of flea

-Reaction: scratching causing red areas & crusty sores

-Only need a couple of fleas every 2 weeks to keep animal problematic

Pathology caused by Fleas (2)

Transfer of disease

-ex: tapeworm

Anemia (if enough fleas)

What areas need to be treated when treating fleas?

Pet (host)



Which life stages of the flea are treatable?

Larva & Adult

3 Ways to Treat a Pet for Fleas

1. Adulticide

2. Insect Growth Regulator (IGR)

3. Insect Development Inhibitor (IDI)

How to Treat the House for Fleas


Launder bedding

Spray house with insecticide

* Pay attention to hot spots *

Repeat after 2 weeks & then every 2 months during flea season

How to Treat the Yard for Fleas

Dispose of all garbage

Cut lawn short/branches back

Board off porches & dark areas

Clean kennels

Spray with insecticide

Repeat as necessary!!