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22 Cards in this Set

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What is Labour?

1. Craftspeople performing construction work


2. Employed, supervised, and paid by contractor


3. Contractor controls labour


4. Contractor employs a variety of people


5. Labourers, carpenters, operating engineers

What is Labour Productivity?

Rate at which tasks are produced


Especially the output per unit of labour


Affected by many factors


Productivity rates


Should be established in the estimate


Perception of conditions


Project requirements

How do calculate Labour Productivity

Productivity = Output/Input


e.g. Earned hours/Worked hours


or


Productivity = Input/Output

What is the definition of Productivity?

Is a measure of how efficiently inputs are converted to outputs


Total Productivity Measure (includes all inputs in an organization labour materials capital)


Total Productivity = $sales/input$


Partial Productivity Measure (measures a single input at a time to a specific output)


Partial Productivity = cars/employee


Multifactor Productivity Measure (ratio of output to a group of inputs as labour and material)


Multi-factor Productivity = sales/total $cost

What are the forms of Productivity?

1. Total factor productivity - overall indicator of how well an organization uses all of its resources


to create all of its products and services


Productivity = Outputs/Inputs


2. Labour productivity - partial productivity ratio that uses only one category of resource to gage the organization's productivity in utilizing that resource


Labour Productivity = Outputs/Direct Labour

Why measure labour productivity?
Labour tends to be the largest cost element and a change increase in the labour will impact the profit the most.



What are some common industry related factors impacting labour productivity?

1. Uniqueness of the Construction Project


2. Varied Locations


3. Adverse, Uncertain Weather and Seasonality


4. Dependence on the Economy


5. Lack of R&D



How can poor weather effect productivity?

Not adequately anticipated


Forces changes in schedules, production and damage to completed work


Decreases productivity


Can affect some construction materials


Protective clothing can impede labour


Should be considered in initial project planning

How do Projects in existing facilities or congested areas affect productivity?

Causes slowdown in productivity


*Damage to completed finishes may occur


*Work will slow to protect work in place


Common occurrences


*Several trades working in same area


*Remodeling and occupied spaces

What are some common labour related factors impacting labour productivity?

High Percentage of Labour cost


Little Potential for Learning


Lack of Work Motivation

What are some common Management related factors impacting labour productivity?

Contractors are often short-sighted in their view to the project


Contractors spend more money on tangible items like tools and equipment


Poor planning & management of work


Bad estimate


Lack of training


Staff turnover and retirements

What are some common material management problems that impact labour productivity?

Late deliveries


Shortages


Carrying distance required


Double handling


Correct amounts


Appropriate storage

What can high labour turnover indicate?

Poor planning


General unrest


Lack of leadership


Inconsistent training


Incorrect labour employed

How can Accidents and Unsafe conditions impact labour productivity?

Jobsite Accidents - Result in quick halt of work


Unsafe Conditions - Result in overly cautious workers


State and federal regulations - Require an active construction safety program

How can working overtime impact labour productivity?

Increases injuries and safety problems


-workers may become tired


-productivity decreases


-work may become disgruntled


-results in low morale among other employees


Expensive: wages and lost productivity


-usually can be avoided


-proper project planning and crew size

What are some main causes of Labour overruns?

Restricted site access, work space and site conditions


1. excessive travel time from an assembly area to the work area


2. crowding


3. limited access that results in delays and excessive use of labour instead of equipment


4. inadequate work areas for storage


Delay


1. idle labour


2. ineffective work


3. working at a reduces pace due to smaller crews, worker slowdown, insufficient equipment


4. equipment standby


5. performing work in different conditions


Acceleration


1. overtime


2. fatigue


3. boredom


4. absenteeism and poor moral


5. multiple-shift operations


6. mobilization and demobilization of additional labour and equipment


7. overworked supervisors who are unable to handle the faster pace or larger workforce


Change Orders


Contract modifications which increase contract value between 5-10% would be reasonably expected on most construction projects

What are some impacts of changes?

work flow


errors


latent condition discovered


frequent changes


confusion and reduce productivity


can be minimized


knowledgeable examination of documents


indication of implemented changes

What is schedule compression?
when excessive amount of non-critical tasks are delayed until they become critical tasks and create chaos near the end of a schedule or phase
What is the definition of Loss of Productivity (inefficiency)?

disruption is a material alteration in the performance condition that was expected at the time of the bid from those actually encountered; resulting in increased difficulty and cost of performance...Lost productivity is a classic result of disruption because in the end more labour and equipment will be required to do the same job


occurs when more (man-hours) are used to achieve the same amount of work, or less work iis performed rather than planned with no change in the planned resources

What is stacking of trades?
relates to the number of different trades within a measured work area. Measured by total # of trades/area
What is overcrowding of trades?
is the increase of all labour types within a given construction work area measured by total # of workers/area
What is overmanning of trades?
is the increase in number of workers working in any particular crew measured by # of workers/crew