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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Labour?

1. Craftspeople performing construction work

2. Employed, supervised, and paid by contractor

3. Contractor controls labour

4. Contractor employs a variety of people

5. Labourers, carpenters, operating engineers

What is Labour Productivity?

Rate at which tasks are produced

Especially the output per unit of labour

Affected by many factors

Productivity rates

Should be established in the estimate

Perception of conditions

Project requirements

How do calculate Labour Productivity

Productivity = Output/Input

e.g. Earned hours/Worked hours


Productivity = Input/Output

What is the definition of Productivity?

Is a measure of how efficiently inputs are converted to outputs

Total Productivity Measure (includes all inputs in an organization labour materials capital)

Total Productivity = $sales/input$

Partial Productivity Measure (measures a single input at a time to a specific output)

Partial Productivity = cars/employee

Multifactor Productivity Measure (ratio of output to a group of inputs as labour and material)

Multi-factor Productivity = sales/total $cost

What are the forms of Productivity?

1. Total factor productivity - overall indicator of how well an organization uses all of its resources

to create all of its products and services

Productivity = Outputs/Inputs

2. Labour productivity - partial productivity ratio that uses only one category of resource to gage the organization's productivity in utilizing that resource

Labour Productivity = Outputs/Direct Labour

Why measure labour productivity?
Labour tends to be the largest cost element and a change increase in the labour will impact the profit the most.

What are some common industry related factors impacting labour productivity?

1. Uniqueness of the Construction Project

2. Varied Locations

3. Adverse, Uncertain Weather and Seasonality

4. Dependence on the Economy

5. Lack of R&D

How can poor weather effect productivity?

Not adequately anticipated

Forces changes in schedules, production and damage to completed work

Decreases productivity

Can affect some construction materials

Protective clothing can impede labour

Should be considered in initial project planning

How do Projects in existing facilities or congested areas affect productivity?

Causes slowdown in productivity

*Damage to completed finishes may occur

*Work will slow to protect work in place

Common occurrences

*Several trades working in same area

*Remodeling and occupied spaces

What are some common labour related factors impacting labour productivity?

High Percentage of Labour cost

Little Potential for Learning

Lack of Work Motivation

What are some common Management related factors impacting labour productivity?

Contractors are often short-sighted in their view to the project

Contractors spend more money on tangible items like tools and equipment

Poor planning & management of work

Bad estimate

Lack of training

Staff turnover and retirements

What are some common material management problems that impact labour productivity?

Late deliveries


Carrying distance required

Double handling

Correct amounts

Appropriate storage

What can high labour turnover indicate?

Poor planning

General unrest

Lack of leadership

Inconsistent training

Incorrect labour employed

How can Accidents and Unsafe conditions impact labour productivity?

Jobsite Accidents - Result in quick halt of work

Unsafe Conditions - Result in overly cautious workers

State and federal regulations - Require an active construction safety program

How can working overtime impact labour productivity?

Increases injuries and safety problems

-workers may become tired

-productivity decreases

-work may become disgruntled

-results in low morale among other employees

Expensive: wages and lost productivity

-usually can be avoided

-proper project planning and crew size

What are some main causes of Labour overruns?

Restricted site access, work space and site conditions

1. excessive travel time from an assembly area to the work area

2. crowding

3. limited access that results in delays and excessive use of labour instead of equipment

4. inadequate work areas for storage


1. idle labour

2. ineffective work

3. working at a reduces pace due to smaller crews, worker slowdown, insufficient equipment

4. equipment standby

5. performing work in different conditions


1. overtime

2. fatigue

3. boredom

4. absenteeism and poor moral

5. multiple-shift operations

6. mobilization and demobilization of additional labour and equipment

7. overworked supervisors who are unable to handle the faster pace or larger workforce

Change Orders

Contract modifications which increase contract value between 5-10% would be reasonably expected on most construction projects

What are some impacts of changes?

work flow


latent condition discovered

frequent changes

confusion and reduce productivity

can be minimized

knowledgeable examination of documents

indication of implemented changes

What is schedule compression?
when excessive amount of non-critical tasks are delayed until they become critical tasks and create chaos near the end of a schedule or phase
What is the definition of Loss of Productivity (inefficiency)?

disruption is a material alteration in the performance condition that was expected at the time of the bid from those actually encountered; resulting in increased difficulty and cost of performance...Lost productivity is a classic result of disruption because in the end more labour and equipment will be required to do the same job

occurs when more (man-hours) are used to achieve the same amount of work, or less work iis performed rather than planned with no change in the planned resources

What is stacking of trades?
relates to the number of different trades within a measured work area. Measured by total # of trades/area
What is overcrowding of trades?
is the increase of all labour types within a given construction work area measured by total # of workers/area
What is overmanning of trades?
is the increase in number of workers working in any particular crew measured by # of workers/crew