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275 Cards in this Set

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Phylum Annelida has how many species?

Greater than 12,000
Annelids may make up the greatest biomass in?
Tampa Bay
Annelids are?
Usually small
The largest annelid?
An earth worm in Australia that was 3 m
Annelids...
Are marine, freshwater, and terrestrial
Sand reefs are formed from?
Annelids
Name the four annelid characteristics.
1.) Chitinous bristles called setae
2.) High degree of metamerism
3.) Segments are created by transverse septa, derived from mesoderm
4.) Possess excretory organs called metanephridia
The chitinous bristles or setae are?
1.) On all segments but first
2.) Used to provide traction with substrate (There are exceptions)
Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, and Hirundinea have how many setae?
Polychaeta - many setae
Oligochaeta - few setae
Hirundinea - no setae
What is metamerism?
Serial repetition of organ systems in body segments arranged in a linear series along an anterior - posterior axis
Organ systems include?
Appendages, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, coelom, and excretory system. These are all repeated in each segment.
Other organisms have metamerism but no where to the extent of annelids. T or F?
True
Some segments have been fused to...
Form one specialized segment
What is an example of this fused specialized segment?
Prostomiun which bears eyes, antennae, palps (feeding structures), and brain
Segments are created by transverse septa derived from mesoderm...
The transverse are complete so they divide the coelom into compartments so each segment has it's own coelomic fluid
This coelomic fluid...
Acts as a hydroskeleton
Why can coelomic fluid act as a hydroskeleton?
Under pressure, incompressible fluid
There are two types of muscles which are?
Circular muscle and longitudinal muscle
When circulars contract and longitudinal relax...
Lengthening of segment
When circulars relax and longitudinal contract...
The segment shortens and fattens
Each segment could be...
Contracting and relaxing differently
Why is this an energy efficient way of moving?
Since the coelomic fluid is retained in each septa it doesn't bulge anteriorly or posteriorly
The cuticle of an annelid...
Is secreted by the epidermis and is water and gas permeable
The excretory organs or metanephridia...
1.) Opens into the coelom by ciliated funnel called nephrostome and to exterior by a nephridiopore
2.) Coelomic fluid is drawn into nephrostome
3.) Ultrafilitration is modified in a ciliated duct called the metanephridial tubule by selective reabsorption by molecules across blood vessels
In annelids ultrafilitration occurs across blood vessel walls. T or F?
True
What is ultrafilitration?
Process where molecules are forced through a semipermeable membrane where some molecules (Salts, amino acids, water) are reabsorbed and others (Metabolic wastes) are secreted into the lumen of tubule, the urine is released via nephridiopores
What are major groups of Phylum Annelida?
1.) Class Polychaeta
2.) Class Clitellata
- Subclass Oligochaeta
- Subclass Hirundinea
3.) Echiura
Sipuncula
Echiura and Sipuncula...
Used to be a plyla but some molecular evidence points they are near to Polychaeta but it is unresolved.
Echiura...
Frilly feeding structure on top of fleshy musculature, "penis worm"
Sipuncula...
In soft sediment or between rocks, "peanut worm"
Both Echiura and Sipuncula...
1.) Marine
2.) U-shaped burrows
3.) Adults are not segmented
Class Polychaeta has?
8,000 species
Class Polychaeta includes?
Marine segmented worms and deep sea tube worms
Class Polychaeta possess?
Paddle-like appendages called parapodia, which extend from body segments
Parapodia are?
Paddle-like appendages
Parapodia...
1.) Laternally compressed
2.) Biramous (Two branched)
What are the two branches of the parapodia?
1.) Notopodium - upper lobe, dorsal
2.) Neuropodium - lower lobe, ventral
What is a acicula?
A chitinous support rod in the parapodia
What is the function of the parapodia?
Locomotion
What forms of locomotion?
Crawling, swimming, modified as hooks or uncini (Help grip inner walls of burrow)
Which polchaetes have the most developed parapodia?
Active crawlers
The morphology of parapodia is...
Dependent on habitat
The prostomium is very elaborate with sensory and feeding structures. T or F?
True
Polychaetes are what type of feeders?
Raptorial or carnivorous with reversible pharynx, deposit feeding, suspension/filter feeding
The reversible pharynx...
Bears 2 or more jaws, has jaws on end of pharynx that are tucked inside then pops out (Like a blow up latex glove)
Nonselective deposit feeding is?
Taking organic material from sediment, their ingesting both sediment and organic material
Nonselective deposit feeding leaves...
Psuedofeces
What is psudofeces?
Processed sediment left by organism
An example of nonselective deposit feeding?
Lug worm - Arenicola
What is selective deposit feeding?
Separates organic and sediment before getting to mouth, have elaborate tentacles
What is an example of selective deposit feeding?
Cirratulus cirratus
Suspension or filter feeding?
1.) Organism is sessile
2.) Radial arrangement of filtration structures
What is the most common feeding structure in Tampa Bay?
Deposit feeders
Respiration...
1.) Most have gills on body surface (Anything that lives in tubes will have external gills)
2.) Some have modified parapodia (For diffusion and gas exchange)
Class Polychaeta has _______ circulation.
Closed
The ventral and dorsal blood vessels...
1.) Dorsal blood vessels -> anterior
2.) Ventral blood vessels -> posterior
Some vessels...
Are very muscular which can pump blood and keep it moving
Parapodia...
Have a lot of vessels which is why they sometimes are used for respiration
Class Clitellata has?
Clitellum
What is a clitellum?
Anterior, thickened/swollen, contains many glands that secrete mucus, which is used for copulation and producing a cocoon
What is in this cocoon?
This is where baby "earthworms" for example come from
Subclass Oligochaeta...
1.) Terrestrial/freshwater (Very few marine)
2.) Segmentation best developed
3.) Simple prostomium
4.) Few setae, no parapodia
Since Class Oligochaeta has no parapodia...
Have to rely on peristaltic contractions for movement
Subclass Hirundinea are best known as the...
Leeches
Subclass Hirundinea...(4)
1.) Lack setae
2.) Lack parapodia
3.) Segmentation reduced
4.) Ectoparasitic
Since Subclass Hirundinea lack parapodia...
1.) Move by oral and posterior suckers (Think slinky)
2.) Can swim (Wavy way to swim)
Subclass Hirundinea has...
A fixed number of segments which is 32
Ectoparasitic...(4)
1.) Oral sucker surrounds mouth
2.) Feed exclusively on blood
3.) Can detect host through temperatures, then attach onto host from sucker, secretes anesthetic (To keep from feeling it), then hirundin - anticoagulant
4.) Jaws are made to cut flesh
The jaws of Subclass Hirundinea...
1.) Jaws have 100's of teeth
2.) Usually 3 jaws
Phylum Arthopoda...(7)
1.) Is the largest phyla of Erath
2.) 75% of animal species are arthropods
3.) 3 times more arthropods then all the other phyla combined
4.) Can colonize every niche in a variety of habitats
5.) Very diverse
6.) 1 million species described
7.) Can be many more to be described
Trilobites...
Exhibit almost all Arthropoda characteristics and the fossil record is very good because the exoskeleton is made of chitin
Similarities of Arthropoda with Annelida? (5)
1.) Disappearance of segments
2.) Fusion of segments into specialized regions
3.) Layout of nervous system is similar
4.) Embryonic development
5.) Each segment bears appendages
The fusion of segments into specialized regions is called?
Tagmatization
An example of tagmatization?
Crustaceans and insects have 3 tagmata; head, thorax, and abdomen
Layout of nervous system is similar...
1.) Dorsal anterior brain
2.) Ventral nerve cord (Ganglia swellings in each segment)
Embryonic development...
1.) Spiral cleavage
2.) Determinate development
3.) Adult mouth forms from blastopore (Protostomous)
4.) Coelom from schizocoely
Protostomes
Each segment bears appendages...
Segmented, articulate with body (joints)
What are the two types of appendages on the segments?
1.) Biramous - branched (Ex. Crustaceans)
2.) Uniramous - unbranched (Ex. Insects)
Phylum Onychophora is often called?
The missing link between Annelida and Arthropoda
Phylum Onychophora...
Very small, ~100 species
Phylum Onychophora bears these annelid features...(3)
1.) Appendages not jointed
2.) One pair of excretory organs per segment
3.) Similar muscular organization
Phylum Onychophora bears these arthropod features...(4)
1.) Cuticle of chitin
2.) Arthropod-like mouth parts
3.) Some striated muscles
4.) Hemocoel (Open circulation)
What are the distinguishing Arthropoda characteristics? (4)
1.) Chitinous exoskeleton
2.) Jointed segmented appendages
3.) Striated muscle
4.) Ecdysis
The chitinous exosketon is?
Made of strong protein (Chitin)
The chitinous exoskeleton function is? (3)
1.) Protection
2.) Support (For organ systems)
3.) Movement
What is the hardening elements of the chitinous exoskeleton?
1.) Calcium carbonate
2.) Sclerotization
What is sclerotization?
Formation of cross linkages between protein chains
The chinitous exoskeleton is also...
1.) Secreted by the epidermis
2.) Lines the digestive tract
What are the parts of the chitinous exoskeleton? (3)
1.) Epicuticle
2.) Exocuticle
3.) Endocuticle
The epicuticle...
3%, waxy because of lipoproteins impermeable to water and gas
The exocuticle is...
Pigmented
The endocuticle...
Has a calcified and uncalcified part
The exocuticle and endocuticle...
Are the procuticle
Jointed segmented appendages...
1.) Thin ares of procuticle are points of articulation
2.) Pair of muscles connect segment and allow for movement
What are these pair of muscles?
1.) Flexor
2.) Extensor muscle
Striated muscle...
Faster contraction time (Contraction is both one movement of contraction and relaxation)
Which invertebrate has the fastest reaction time?
Insects
Ecdysis is?
Molting or shedding of the old exoskeleton
What is exuvium?
The molted exoskeleton
Arthropods will do what with the exuvium?
They will usually eat the exuvium
How does the growth of an arthropod appear?
It looks like steps
Is this actually how the growth is?
This is only how growth appears but this is not how an arthropod grows, growth is always occurring
So how does an arthropod grow?
Grows in four stages of molt cycle
What are these four stages?
1.) Pre-ecdysis
2.) Ecdysis
3.) Post-ecdysis
4.) Intermolt
Pre-ecdysis...
1.) Is the preparatory stage
2.) Consists of accumulation of food reserves and rise in blood calcium (Release of stored Ca2+)
Ecdysis...
The shedding of the exoskeleton which is faster then the post-ecdysis phase
Post-ecdysis...
Calcification and hardening of new exoskeleton
Intermolt...
Between molts
What are the steps in preparation for molting? (6)
1.) Epidermis secretes proenzymes (Will eventually digest the old cuticle)
2.) Epidermis secretes a new epicuticle and molting cuticle (Molting fluid)
3.) Proenzymes are activated and begin to digest endocuticle, products are absorbed by new epicuticle
4.) As old endocuticle is broken down, new procuticle is secreted beneath the new epicuticle
5.) Predetermined lines in the molted body will break for arthopod to crawl out
6.) New exoskeleton is soft and wrinkled
Why does their have to be a molting cuticle or molting fluid?
To separate new exoskeleton and old
Why is the new exoskeleton soft and wrinkled?
It's larger and was stuck in small encasement of molted body and CaCO3 must be added so the body will harden
How is the new exoskeleton stretched out?
Terrestrial invertebrates uptake air and aquatic invertebrates uptake water
Depending on time when limb severed, animal can regenerate limbs through molting. T or F?
True
What is a terminal molt?
A certain number of moltings before the animal stops molting all together and calcium carbonate accumulates at this point
What is an example of having terminal molts?
Not all arthropods have this but spider crabs are known to
The molt cycle is controlled by?
Hormones
These hormones are produced by?
The Y organ and the X organ
The Y organ...
Is located in the head and produces ecdysone which promotes production of a new cuticle
What triggers the production of ecdysone?
Another hormone in the brain
The X organ...
Or sinus gland is located in the eye stalks and produces a hormone that inhibits ecdysis
The inhibiting hormone...
Is always produced in intermolt then once getting ready to do ecdysis the inhibiting hormone is not produced
Phylum Arthropoda is made up up which subphyla? (3)
1.) Subphylum Trilobitomorpha
2.) Subphylum Chelicerata
3.) Subphylum Mandibulata
Subphylum Chelicerata is made up of which classes? (3)
1.) Class Merostomata: Horseshoe crabs
2.) Class Arachnida: Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites
3.) Class Pycnogonida: Sea spiders
Subphylum Mandibulata is made up of which classes? (3)
1.) Class Myriapoda: Centipedes, millipedes
2.) Class Insecta (Hexapoda): True bugs, butterflies, wasps, ect...
3.) Class Crustacea
Class Crustacea is made up of which subclasses? (4)
1.) Subclass Malacostraca: Isopods, amphipods, krill, crabs, shrimp, lobsters, hermit crabs
2.) Subclass Branchiopoda: Fairy shrimp, water shrimp, brine shrimp ("Sea monkeys")
3.) Subclass Copepoda: Copepods
4.) Subclass Cirripedia
Subclass Cirripedia is made up of which orders?
Order Thoracia: Free-living barnacles
Order Rhizocephala: Parasitic barnacles
Subphylum Trilobitomorpha...(3)
1.) 24,000 species but not sure
2.) 240 mya went extinct
3.) 600 mya fossil record
Subphylum Trilobitomorpha has __________ appendages.
biramous or branched, found on every segment and are uniform appendages
Subphylum Trilobitomorpha contains organisms that?
Are swimmers, pelagic, or burrowers
Subphylum Trilobitomorpha has a _____________ appearance.
3 lobed
This 3 lobed appearance includes?
1.) Cephalon - head region
2.) Segmented trunk or lateral lobe - body
3.) Medial lobe - raised on top of head and body
Subphylum Chelicerata...(5)
1.) 2 tegmata (Body regions)
2.) Lack antennae
3.) 1st pair of feeding structures - cheliceral
4.) 2nd pair of feeding structures - pedipalp
5.) Four pairs of walking legs
In Subphylum Chelicerata, what are the two parts of the tegmata?
1.) Prosoma (Anterior)
2.) Opisthosoma (Posterior)
Class Merostomata has?
1.) 600 mya fossil record
2.) Horseshoe crabs
3.) Only 4 species
These four species...
Ex. Limulus polyphemus, the other three are in Asia
Class Merostomata are...
Omnivores
Class Merostomata has a telson which is?
Tail spine that helps turn them back over
Class Merostomata...
Has a simple eye located on the prostoma
Class Merostomata's fifth leg...
Has no pinchers, not sure what function it has
Class Merostomata has a gnathobase which is?
First segment of walking legs, used to crush prey
On Class Merostomata's opisthosoma...(3)
1.) First pair of segments for reproduction
2.) Other five for gas exchange
3.) These make up the book gills which are also used for swimming
Subphylum Mandibulata's, Class Crustacea has...
1.) 38,000 species
2.) 84% of those are marine, 13% are freshwater, 3% are terrestrial
Class Crustacea has...
3 tegmata
The 3 tegmata are?
1.) Head
2.) Thorax
3.) Abdomen
The head and the thorax make up?
Cephalothorax
Class Crustacea's head appendages...
Are in 5 pairs
These five pairs are?
1.) 1st pair of antennae - always together, short
2.) 2nd pair of antannae - long
3.) Mandibles - stout jaw, to crush prey and move them into mouth
4.) 1st pair of maxillae
5.) 2nd pair of maxillae
The first and second pair of maxillae...
Sort food and deliver it to mandible
The thorax has...
Thoracopods - 8 pairs
These 8 pairs of thoracopods are?
1.) 1st 3 pair are called maxillipeds - food sorting
2.) Other 5 pairs are pereopods - for locomotion
The first pair of pereopods...
Is modified into pinchers called cheliped
The enlarged pincher is usually for?
Defense
The carapace is?
Shield that covers body
What is the anterior part of the carapace?
Rostrum
The abdominal appendages include?
1.) Pleopods - For swimming, jumping, respiration, brooding eggs, and copulation
2.) Last 3 segments are uropods
3.) Then the telson which bears the anus
All these appendages are biramous...
1.) Endopodite
2.) Exopodite
Crab morphology?
Abdomen of shrimp but folded under cephalothorax
Since the abdomen is shifted...
1.) It shifts the center of gravity
2.) Head and thorax combined into cephalothorax which is covered by a carapace
In crab morphology...(3)
1.) No uropods
2.) Pleopods modified for reproduction
3.) Carapace is broad dorsal-ventral flattened
What is brooding in crabs?
Using pleopods to pick up sand particles away from eggs and clean
What is ovigerous?
Egg bearing
A female crab will...
Shake abdomen to release larvae
The crab larva are called?
Zoea
There are four stages from...
Zoea to megalops
What is a megalops?
Juvenile crab
Class Crustacea's, Subclass Cirripedia...
1.) Only sessile crustaceans
2.) 900 species
Subclass Cirripedia's 900 species...
1.) 2/3 are free-living - Order Thoracica
2.) 1/3 are parasitic - Order Rhizocephala
Order Thoracica...(5)
1.) 6 calcareous plates
2.) Covered by operculum
3.) Cirri - modified thoracic appendages
4.) No abdomen
5.) Hermaphroditic - both male and female reproductive organs (Penis can extend out to female to deposit sperm)
Reproduction of Order Thoracica? (4)
1.) Once sperm deposited, egg fertilized internally
2.) Then larvae released - nauplius
3.) Nauplius will molt several times turning into a cypris
4.) The cypris will settle then metamorphose into adult
Order Rhizocephala...(5)
1.) Parasitize other crustaceans
2.) Looks nothing like free-living barnacle
3.) No segmentation
4.) No appendages
5.) No gut
The adult rhizocephalian...
1.) Interna - root-like network
2.) Externa - Contain female reproductive organs
Rhizocephalian pathology...(4)
1.) Molting of host is inhibited
2.) Parasitic castration
3.) Alteration of host behavior
4.) Feminization of male host
How does the host behave differently?
The adult arthropod will perform spawning and grooming behavior even males
How is the male host feminized?
Abdomen grows in influence from parasite
In the deuterostomes, the lophorates possess...(5)
1.) Lophophore
2.) U-shaped gut
3.) Simple, transient reproductive organs
4.) Secrete outer casting
5.) Exclusively marine and benthic
What is a lophophore?
Circular or horseshoe shape feeding structure that encircles the mouth and bares numerous ciliated tenacles, anus located outside of tentacle ring
The tentacles are...
"Hollow," they contain coelomic fluid
The cilia...
Create certain pattern of water flow to trap food
The huge surface area...
Also flushes waste out and aids in gas exchange
Simple, transient reproduction organs implies...
Only have organs when they are going to reproduce, other times they just disappear
What is the casting that is secreted?
Proteinous covering, shell, or some kind of covering
What phyla are known to be colonizing? (3)
1.) Phylum Phoronida
2.) Phylum Bryozoa
3.) Phylum Brachiopoda
What is a colony?
Composed of member zooids or modules, which are physiologically connected
Colonies are considered...
1.) A genetic unit
2.) Some colonies are polymorphic
What is polymorphic?
Zooids have specialized function
Ex. Feeding, reproduction, defense
Colonial growth?
There is indeterminate growth so no finite (specific) size or shape
Ex. Hydriods, anthozoans, turnicates, and bryozoans
Colony formation?
1.) Budding
2.) Fission
3.) Fragmentation
Budding?
Orderly asexual reproduction, buds from parental zooids wall
Ex. Hydriods, bryozoans
Fission?
Division of an organism into 2 or more organisms
Ex. Bryozoans
Fragmentation?
Zooid or group of zooids break off from existing colony
Ex. Coral
Mortality - colony vs. solitary?
Colony - Low
Solitary - High
Size - colony vs. solitary?
Colony - Large
Solitary - Small
Longevity - colony vs. solitary?
Colony - Long
Solitary - Short
Fecundity (# of young produced by individual) - colony vs. solitary?
Colony - Low (Very long life history so they don't have to make so many larvae at once)
Solitary - High
Regeneration - colony vs. solitary?
Colony - High
Solitary - Low
Potential to dominate - colony vs. solitary?
Colony - High in stable environment
Solitary - High potential in less stable environment
Phylum Bryozoa...
1.) Has 5,000 species
2.) 15,000 specie fossil record
Characteristics of Phylum Bryozoa...(7)
1.) All sessile colonies
2.) Asexual budding
3.) Hermaphroditic with transient reproductive organs
4.) Outer covering - gelatinous, chitinous, calcareous
5.) Variable morphologies
6.) Zooids interconnected
7.) Marine (Few fresh water), fouling communities
Variable morphologies include?
Flat and encrusting to erect and branching
Zooids interconnected...
Share coelom or connected by tubular tissue called funiculus, they do not share a digestive tract though
What are fouling communities?
Live by man-made structures or other organisms
Polymorphic colonies zooids...
1.) Autozooids - bear the lophophore, primarily feeding and digestion
2.) Heterozooids - all other zooids
Heterozooids include? (3)
1.) Kenozooids - zooids modified for attachment to substrate
2.) Avicularia - Has movable jaw/mandible, defense and cleans from debris
3.) Vibraculum - Modified operculum (Opening of bryozoan) that sweeps colony surface
The body structure of a bryozoan...(3)
1.) Has a box or cystid that houses all parts inside
2.) Opening covered by flap-like structure called operculum
3.) All movable parts are the polypide (Lophophore, gut, muscle, funiculus, ect.)
Phylum Brachiopoda has?
1.) 300 species
2.) 30,000 specie fossil record
Phylum Brachiopoda...(3)
1.) 2 piece valve: dorsal - ventral
2.) Mantle, mantle cavity
3.) Lophophore - spiraled or looped
The 2 piece valve of Phylum Brachiopoda...
Is due to convergence not a evolutionary origin with Bivalvia
Habit - Articulata vs. Inarticulata?
Articulata - Attached to hard substrates
Inarticulata - Burrows
Tooth and socket hinges - Articulata vs. Inarticulata?
Articulata - Present
Inarticulata - Absent
Pedicle - Articulata vs. Inarticulata?
Articulata - Present, emerges in hole in ventral valve
Inarticulata - Present, emerges from between two valves
Lophophore supports - Articulata vs. Inarticulata?
Articulata - Brachidium
Inarticulata - Absent
Phylum Echinodermata has?
1.) 6,500 species
2.) 13,000 specie fossil record
Largest invertebrate deuterostome group
Phylum Echinodermata is also? (3)
1.) Marine
2.) Benthic
3.) Sister group to Chordata
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Phylum Echinodermata? (4)
1.) Adults possess pentamerous radial symmetry
2.) Internal skeleton
3.) Mutable connective tissue or catch tissue
4.) Network of fluid filled canals that terminate in tube feet - water vascular system
Adults possess pentamerous radial symmetry...(6)
1.) 5 point
2.) Arranged around central axis
3.) Oral/aboral surface
4.) Lack cephalization
5.) Larvae are bilateral
6.) Derived from bilateral ancestor
Internal skeleton...
Dermis which is collagenous collective tissue
In the dermis...
Calcareous ossicles are embedded
These calareous ossicles are made up of...(3)
1.) CaCO3, up to 95%
2.) Magnesium carbonate, up to 15%
3.) Small amounts of salts and true metals
The dermis varies in rigidity...(3)
1.) Rigid tests - ossicles are fused together (Ex. Sea urchins)
2.) Articulated skeleton - ossicles articulate (Ex. Brittle star)
3.) Pliable soft body - ossicles scattered in dermis (Ex. Sea cucumber)
The mutable connective tissue or catch tissue...
Voluntarily change stiffness of connective tissue
Softening of connective tissue...
Casting off rays by depolymerizing the tissue at a breaking point, for escape from a predator
Hardening of connective tissue...
Usually sea stars during feeding, sea cucumber defense
Network of fluid filled canals that terminate in tube feet?
Is not coelomic fluid
What is the function of these fluid filled canals that end in the tube feet? (3)
1.) Feeding
2.) Respiration
3.) Locomotion
What is the pathway for this fluid filled canals? (4)
1.) Fluid enters madreporite (aboral, porous, ciliated, and off center)
2.) Descend to oral surface the stone canal
3.) To the ring canal which encircles the gut
4.) Finally coming into the radial canals in each ray
The ring canal contains...
1.) Tiedemann's bodies
2.) Polian vesicles
What are Tiedemann's bodies?
5 pairs, contain phagocytes to remove wastes and harmful material
What are polian vesicles?
5 of them, reservoir sacks, that can store excess fluid
The radial canals in each ray...(5)
1.) There are 5
2.) Are lateral
3.) One way valve
4.) Terminate in a sac called the ampulla
5.) That leads to tube feet
The ampulla?
Holds excess fluid
What is the fluid used in this system and what does it contain?
Sea water which contains potassium, salts, proteins, amino acids, and cells
What are the four major classes in Phylum Echinodermata? (4)
1.) Class Crinoidea - Sea lilies, feather stars
2.) Class Stellaroidea
3.) Class Echinoidea - Sea urchins, heart urchins, sand dollars
4.) Class Holothuroidea
Class Stellaroidea has...
1.) Subclass Asteroidea - Sea stars
2.) Concentricycloidea - Sea daises
3.) Subclass Ophiuroidea - brittle stars, basket stars
Concentricycloidea?
Newly or recently discovered, usually in deep waters (1000 m), associated with submerged wood, only 1 cm in diameter, and only a few species
Class Crinoidea? (4)
1.) ~600 species
2.) 5,000 fossilized species
3.) One of the oldest groups of Echinodermata
4.) Live in deep water - Coast of Australia - Great Barrier Reef
Class Crinoidea can be?
1.) Stalked - sessile (Ex. Sea lilies)
2.) Unstalked - pelagic (Ex. Sea butterflies)
The rays of Class Crinoidea are?
Atriculated, have ossicles that allows for this (Flexes)
The rays...
Have ciliated ambulacral grooves
On the rays there are also?
Pinnules and tube feet which collect food
On the stalk there is...
A calyx with a mouth that has the rays on it
On the unstalked organisms of Class Crinoidea...
The calyx still has the rays but there is no stalk but cirri that articulate
Class Stellaroidea's, Subclass Asteroidea...
1.) 1,500 species
2.) Are the sea stars
Subclass Asteroidea possess?
1.) Disk
2.) Anus
3.) Madreporite - sieve
4.) Ambulacral groove
5.) Mouth
On the external part of the organism there are? (3)
1.) Spines
2.) Papula
3.) Pedicellaria
What is the papula?
A small bump on the external surface of the sea star that has a smaller layer of epidermis on it, it aids in gas exchange
What is the pedicellaria?
Keeps the surface of the animal clean
Feeding biology...
Mouth -> Short esophagus -> Cardiac stomach (Large) -> Pyloric stomach -> Pyloric cecum -> Intestine -> Anus on aboral side
The pyloric cecum...
Makes digestive enzymes, in each ray there are two ceca
Some species can...
Expel cardiac stomach so digestion can start on the outside
Other species...
Eat animal whole
All sea stars are?
Carnivorous
Subclass Ophiuroidea has...
1.) ~2,000 species
2.) Are the brittle stars and basket stars
Subclass Ophiuroidea...(5)
1.) Long flexible rays, off-center from disk
2.) Locomotion by "rowing" - 2 rays row the other 3 drag
3.) Ossicles articulate
4.) Lack ambulacral groove
5.) Lack ampullae
Class Holothuroidea has...
1.) ~900 species
2.) Are the sea cucumbers
Class Holothuroidea...(4)
1.) Burrow in sediments, crevice or cracks in reefs, or pelagic
2.) Tend to be soft bodied
3.) Most are nocturnal
4.) Bilateral symmetry on top of pentamerous symmetry (So some degree of cephalization)
Sea cucumbers are?
Nonselective deposit feeders
Physical characteristics of sea cucumber...(6)
1.) Buccal tentacles (Modified tube feet)
2.) Mouth
3.) Tube feet
4.) Digestive tract (Gut)
5.) Respiratory trees
6.) Cloaca
Water comes through...
Cloaca and into respiratory trees
Since fresh water is being brought into cloaca...
Fish can live in cloaca to hide
Ex. Pearl fish and pea crabs
Ossicles...
Come in various morphologies - very important taxonomic character
The coelom in a sea cucumber...
Uses coelom to help work against scattered ossicles
There are only _______ longitudinal muscles in a sea cucumber.
Five
Sea cucumbers can undergo...
Evisceration
What is evisceration?
Expelling viscera or internal organs, can expel all internal organs
What are the two theories of evisceration?
1.) Defense mechanism
2.) Seasonal
Why can evisceration be though to be a defense mechanism?
Eviscerate then predator has something to feed on as sea cucumber escapes, some say there is a distasteful chemical that animals learn to avoid
Why can evisceration be though to be seasonal?
Very species dependent, but doesn't need organs during low productivity times like winter
Class Echinoidea has...
1.) ~950 species
2.) Are the sea urchins, sand dollars, heart urchins, and sea biscuits
Class Echinoidea...(4)
1.) Lack rays
2.) Body spherical, or dorsally - ventrally flattened
3.) Aristotle's lantern
4.) Rigid test
The Aristotle's lantern...
Scrapes algae, it is very complex with teeth and plates
The rigid test has...
1.) Ossicles fused into "puzzle"
2.) 5 double rows with pores, (From ossicles) which tube feet emerge from
3.) 5 double rows (Ossicles without pores)
The 5 double rows with pores are called?
Ambulacral series
The 5 double rows without pores are called?
Interambulacral series
Both double rows are called together?
Tubercules
The spines of Class Echinoidea...
Are made of fused ossicles at base to help move