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87 Cards in this Set

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Allostasis versus Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the adjustment of all the body's systems to keep the functions in equilibrium (body temperature). Immediate.

Allostasis is long-term, achieving equilibrium through behavioral or physiological change.

Allostatic Load

Wear and tear on the body that results from too much stress or inefficient management of stress.


Body Mass Index- Ratio of a person's weight in kg divided by their height in meters squared.


Sexually Transmitted Infection- Present in epidemic proportions, half of all new cases occur younger than age 26. Monogamy is the best prevention tactic.

Diathesis-Stress Model

Mental disorders are produced by interaction of genetics (diathesis) and a stressful environment/life events.


Demands of emerging adulthood may cause psychopathology. Serious mental illness is almost double for adults over 25. First diagnosis of disorder is usually in emerging adulthood.

Major Depressive Disorder

most common depression disorder, loss of interest or pleasure for more than 2 weeks.

Anxiety Disorders

OCD and PTSD are evident in 1/4 of all US residents below age 25. More common in occurrence than depression.


Symptoms begin in adolescence, occurring in 1% of all adults. Bizarre thoughts, delusions, hallucinations and emotions. Risk factors: Malnutrition while brain is developing, social pressure, genetics.

Post-formal thought

More practical and flexible thought (in comparison to formal operational thought). "Problem finding". More open with ideas and less concerned with absolute right and wrong. Decisions based on circumstance and context. Better planning. Formal Operation decisions are based on experience and logic.

Subjective v Objective thought

Subjective: Thinking based on personal qualities (culture, goals, experiences).
Objective: Thinking that is not based on thinker's personal qualities, but instead based on valid fact.

Dialectical antithesis/synthesis

Most advanced cognitive process of postformal thought. Developed by Hegel, every idea or truth bears the opposite idea or truth.
Antithesis: Statement of belief that opposes the thesis.
Synthesis: New idea that integrates the antithesis and the thesis thus representing a new and more comprehensive level of truth.

Stereotype Threat

The possibility that one's appearance or behavior will conform to another's prejudices. "Americans are bad at math, since I'm American I will be bad at math". Anxiety from being perceived as stereotype confirming.

Dilemmas for emerging adults

Gender disparity, Morality of Care/Justice. Differences of morality in other generations.

Morality of Care

Females are reluctant to define right and wrong as absolute. Gray area due to higher socialization.

Morality of Justice

Males emphasize justice over compassion. Right and wrong are black and white. Absolute.

Religion and emerging adulthood

Adult experiences and responsibilities affect moral reasoning and religious beliefs. Maturation of values first appear in emerging adulthood. Development of pro-social values. Attending religious services becomes less frequent, religious convictions increase.

Positive effects of college

College improves verbal and quantitative abilities, knowledge of specific subject areas, skills in various professions, reasoning, and reflection. Better health (smoke less, eat better, exercise more).


College isn't available to *just* the elite of society anymore. College is now available at a broader range than before.

Social Clock

Societal expectations for the time at which people are expected to marry, have children, and accomplish other life tasks.

Indentity v. Role confusion

Knowing who you are and what you expect out of your life. Fidelity/repudiation. Uncertain about values, lifestyle, and friendships.

Vocational identity

Temporary jobs, going to college as a moratorium to prepare for a job. Development of work ethic.

Intimacy v isolation

Erikson's 5th psychosocial stage. Humans are social creatures. Intimacy progresses from attraction to close connection to ongoing commitment. If not achieved, anxious about close relationships, jealous, lonely.

At what stage of life do we tend to make the most friends?

Emerging adulthood


Acceptability varies by culture. Involves living with an unrelated person (usually a romantic partner, to whom one is not married).


Marriage between people who seem to be similar through SES, goals, religion, local origin, attitudes


Marriage between people who are dissimilar.

Linked lives

Where the success, health, and well-being of each family member are connected to those of other family members.

What is the first visible sign of aging?

Skin becomes dryer, less elastic, rougher, more irregular in color.


Gradual physical decline past age 25 at which the body begins to become less strong and efficient. "Past peak".


Loss of hearing associated with hearing after age 60. May occur earlier due to hearing damage. May regain through use of hearing-aids.

Vision Loss

Loss of peripheral and color vision becomes less vivid. Most older adults are both farsighted and nearsighted. Hearing aids.

Gains and losses

Compensating for a loss through something that allows you to gain that ability (laser eye surgery, hearing aids)

Causes of Infertility in men

advanced age, fever, radiation, prescription drugs, stress, environmental toxins, drug abuse, alcoholism, cigarette smoking: can reduce sperm count, shape, and mobility.

Causes of Infertility in women

Anything that can impair physical function (advanced age, disease, smoking, obesity, extreme diets). Pelvic inflammatory disease can block the fallopian tubes, preventing sperm from reaching an ovum.


Factors of menopause: Time, middle age, when a woman's menstrual cycle ceases and the production of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone drops. One year after a woman's last menstrual period. Affected by genes. Psychological consequences vary more than physical ones.


Male menopause. Drop in testosterone levels in older men, reduced sex drive, increased erectile dysfunction and muscle mass.

Risks of Hormone Replacement Therapy

May cause cancer and heart disease

Single largest preventable cause of death and chronic disease


Mortality v Morbidity

Mortality- Death
Morbidity-disease in a given population. Mortality decreases, morbidity increases.


How healthy and energetic an individual feels

How health habits affect senescence

Bad health habits increase speed of senescence, good health habits slow it down.

How is income related to health?

Those with higher income can afford decent healthcare, to take care of themselves, and afford healthier habis. Likely received education to know healthy habits

Sternberg's Three Types of Intelligence

Analytic Intelligence- high value in high school and college, expectation to remember and analyze ideas.

Creative intelligence- allows people to find a match to their skills, values, or desires.

Practical intelligence- useful as people age and need to manage their daily lives.

Explanations for the Flynn Affect

Higher IQs over time due to changes in environment (more education, improved nutrition, smaller family sizes, fewer infections).

Cross-sectional research finding for IQ

Peaks at about 18, remained constant until mid-20s, then declined.

Longitudinal research findings for IQ

Many intellectual gains through adulthood

Fluid v Crystallized Intelligence

Cattell Clusters of Intelligence-
Fluid: Types of basic intelligence that make learning of all sorts quick and thorough. Working memory, abstract thought, speed of thinking.
Crystallized: Intellectual ability that reflects accumulated learning. (Vocabulary and general information)

Common stressors in adulthood

Money, work, economy, relationships, family responsibility, health, safety

Selective optimization with compensation (Baltes)

Maintaining life balance by compensating for physical and cognitive losses and to become more proficient in activities that they can already do well in.

Expert Cognition

Intuitive: Experts rely on past experiences and on immediate contexts. Novices follow procedures and rules.
Automatic: Thinking occurs without deliberate, conscious thought. Experts process most tasks automatically, saving conscious thought for more unfamiliar changes.
Strategic: Experts have more and better strategies, especially when problems are unexpected.

Flexible: Experts are creative and curious, deliberately experimenting and enjoying the challenge when things do not go according to plan.

Midlife Crisis

Period of unusual anxiety, radical self-reexamination, sudden transformation (does not actually occur)

Big Five Personality Traits

Conscientiousness (self-discipline, organized)
Agreeableness (generous, helpful)
Neuroticism (anxious, moody, critical)

Ecological Niche

Choosing a particular social context based on individual personality needs and interests. Adults select vocations, mates, and neighborhoods and settle into chosen routines and surroundings. Ages 30-50. Stability.

Social Convoy

Collectively, family members, friends, acquaintances, strangers who move through life with an individual.

Consequential strangers

People who are not close to you but have an impact. (Barista who you get your coffee from every morning).

Family relationships during adulthood (Sibling, Parent)

Sibling: Adult siblings often become mutually supportive and help one another cope. Sibling bonds are more likely to develop in adulthood among children who grew up in large families with major stressors.
Parent: Parents and children typically increase in closeness, forgiveness, and pride.

Four Negative Patterns that can Predict Divorce (Gottman)



LAT (Living Apart Together)

Exactly what it sounds like. Having a steady romantic partnership, but living apart from one another.


Member of the family who keeps the family together. Organizes family gatherings, keeps everyone in contact with one another.

Fictive kin

People who aren't your blood relatives, but are like family.

Sandwich generation

Generation of adults who care for their elderly parents and their young children.

Intrinsic/Extrinsic rewards of work

Intrinsic: Intangible gratification as a result of doing a job (pride, satisfaction, self-esteem).
Extrinsic: External gratification, tangible benefits in the form of compensation for doing a job (salary, health insurance, pension).

Generativity v Stagnation

Adults seek to be productive in a care-giving way. Adults need to satisfy their need to be generative in many ways, including creativity, caregiving, and employment. If not achieved, fear of failure.

Problems caused by ageism

Can erode feelings of competence, destroys self-respect in the elderly. Rampant in US culture.


Prejudice in which people are judged solely on the basis of their chronological age.

Sleep pattern changes in the elderly

Day/night circadian rhythm diminishes with age. Wake before dawn and are usually sleepy during the day.


Condescending way of speaking to elderly that resembles baby talk, short, simple sentences, repetition, slow speech, higher pitch. This is demeaning and causes most elderly to become irritated.

Demographic shift

There are now more elderly living than in previous years, so the presence of each age demographic no longer represents a pyramid.


Young-Old: Healthy, vigorous, financially secure adults 60-75. Integrated into lives of families and communities.

Old-Old- 75-85 Suffer from physical, mental, or social deficits.

Oldest-Old- Elderly adults (85+) who are dependent on others for almost everything, requiring certain supportive services such as assisted care and hospital stays.

What three things does selective optimization with compensation involve?

Personal choice
Societal Practice
Technological Options

What factors impact a person's ability to drive safely?

Declining vision, slowed reaction time, declining hearing

Common visual impairments

Cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, farsightedness, nearsightedness.

Changes in the brain as we age

Brain slows down, connections diminish and slow down. Brain shrinkage and cell loss. Neocortex, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex tend to atrophy first.

Primary v Secondary aging

Primary aging: Universal and irreversible physical changes that occur as everyone grows older.
Secondary aging: Preventable causes of aging due to smoking, diet, exercise.

Why do some drugs impact the elderly differently than younger adults?

Slower metabolisms

Acute v Chronic illness

Acute: Sudden symptoms that change or worsen rapidly (heart attack).
Chronic: Develops and worsens over an extended period of time (Osteoperosis, arthritis).

Compression of morbidity

Shortening of the time a person spends ill or infirm before death by postponing illnesses (due to lifestyle, medication, or technical aids)


Decrease in bone density (usually in women) that causes bones to become brittle and break easily.

Leading cause of death in the US

Heart disease

Theories of aging

Wear and Tear: Process by which the human body wears out due to the passage of time and exposure to stressors.

Genetic Adaptation: Our genes determine how long we will live.
Cellular Aging: Cumulative effect of stress and toxins, damaging the cell and eventually causing death of cell

Genetic Clock

Mechanism in DNA of cells that regulates the aging process by triggering hormonal changes and controlling cellular reproduction and repair.

Hayflick limit

number of times a human cell is capable of dividing into two new cells


The "end-caps" of the chromosomes in the cells. Shortens with every cell division. Stress shortens telomeres.

Stress and the immune system

B cells- Bone marrow cells that create antibodies for isolating and destroying bacteria and viruses.
T-cells- Immune cells made in the thymus gland that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body.
NK cells- Natural Killer cells
Stress inhibits immune response.

How does attitude impact the lifespan?

Positive attitudes positively affect longetivity. Negative attitudes decrease longetivity.

Marcia's Indentity Crises

Identity Foreclosure: Doing what your parents did without question.

Identity Diffusion: Apathetic. No exploration or achievement.
Identity Moratorium: "Putting off, active exploration of options" College students who change majors often.
Identity Achievement: Successfully explored and committed to aspects of their identity.