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46 Cards in this Set

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developmental psychology
The study of the changes that occur in people from conception to death.
cross-sectional approach
A method of studying developmental changes by comparing people of different ages at about the same time.
cohort
A group of people born during the same period in historical time.
longitudinal approach
A method of studying developmental changes by evaluating the same people at different points in their lives.
prenatal development
Development from conception to birth.
embryo
A developing human between 2 weeks and 3 months after conception.
fetus
A developing human between 3 months after conception and birth.
critical period
A time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect on development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
A disorder that occurs in children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy; this disorder is characterized by facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments.
neonates
Newborn babies.
temperament
Characteristic patterns of emotional reactions and emotional self-regulation.
developmental norms
The average ages at which specific skills, such as walking, are achieved.
maturation
The automatic biologically programmed unfolding of development in an organism that occurs with the passage of time.
sensory-motor stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between birth and 2 years of age in which the individual develops object permanence and acquires the ability to form mental representations.
object permanence
The concept that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight.
mental representations
Mental images or symbols (such as words) used to think about or remember an object, a person, or an event.
preoperational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between 2 and 7 years of age in which the individual becomes able to use mental representations and language to describe, remember, and reason about the world, though only in an egocentric fashion.
egocentric
Unable to see things from another's point of view.
concrete-operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between 7 and 11 years of age in which the individual can attend to more than one thing at a time and understand someone else's point of view, though thinking is limited to concrete matters.
principles of conservation
The concept that the quantity of a substance is not altered by reversible changes in its appearance.
formal-operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development between adolescence and adulthood in which the individual becomes capable of abstract thought.
babbling
A baby's vocalizations, consisting of repetition of consonant-vowel combinations.
holophrases
One-word sentences commonly used by children under 2 years of age.
imprinting
The tendency in certain species to follow the first moving thing (usually its mother) it sees after it is born or hatched.
attachment
Emotional bond that develops in the first year of life that makes human babies cling to their caregivers for safety and comfort.
autonomy
Sense of independence; a desire not to be controlled by others.
socialization
Process by which children learn the behaviors and attitudes appropriate to their family and culture.
peer group
A network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one anohter emotional and social support.
nonshared environment
The unique aspects of the environment that are experience differently by siblings, even though they are reared in the same family.
gender identity
A little girl's knowledge that she is a girl, and a little boy's knowledge that he is a boy.
gender constancy
The realization that gender does not change with age.
gender-role awareness
Knowledge of what behavior is appropriate for each gender.
gender stereotypes
General beliefs about characteristics that men and women are presumed to have.
gender-typed behavior
Socially prescribed ways of behaving that differ for boys and girls.
growth spurt
A rapid increase in height and weight that occurs during adolescence.
puberty
The onset of sexual maturation, with accompanying physical development.
menarche
First menstrual period.
imaginary audience
Elkind's term for adolescents' delusion that they are constantly being observed by others.
personal fable
Elkind's term for adolescents' delusion that they are unique, very important, and invulnerable.
identity formation
Erickson's term for the development of a stable sense of self necessary to make the transition from dependence on others to dependence on oneself.
identity crisis
A period of intense self-examination and decision making; part of the process of identity formation.
cliques
Groups of adolescents with similar interests and strong mutual attachment.
menopause
The time in a woman's life when menstruation ceases.
midlife crisis
A time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jobs or personal lives and attempt to make a decisive shift in career or lifestyle.
midlife transition
According to Levinson, a process whereby adults assess the past and formulate new goals for the future.
Alzheimer's disease
A neurological disorder, most commonly found in late adulthood, characterized by progressive losses in memory and cognition and by changes in personality.