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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the 6 basic functions of the skeletal system.
name them
1) support
2) protection
3) assistance in movmement
4)mineral homeostasis (storage and release)
5) blood cell production
6) triglyceride storage.
the function of "support" and skeletal system
the skeleteton serves as the structural framework for the body by supporting soft tissues and providing attachment points for the tendons of most skeletal muscles
the function of "protection" and skeletal system
the skeleton protects the most important internal organs from injury. for example, cranial bones protect the brain, bertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the rib cage protects the heart and lungs
the function of "assistance in movement" and skeletal system
most skeletal muscles attach to bones; when they contract, they pull on bones to produce movement.
the function of "mineral homeostasis" and skeletal system
bone tissue stores several minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus which contribute to the strength of bone. on demand, bone releases minerals into the blood to maintain crticial mineral balances and to distribute the minerals to other parts of the body
the function of "blood cell production" and skeletal system
within certain bones, a connective tissue called red bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, a process called hemopoiesis. red bone marrow consists of developing blood cells, adipocytes, fiberoblasts, and macrophages within a network of reticular fibers. It is present in developing bones of the fetus and in some adult bones, such as the hib bones, ribs, breastbone, vertebrae, skull, and ends of the bones of the arm and thigh
the function of "triglyceride storage" and skeletal system
yellow bone marrow consists mainly of adipose cells, which store triglycerides. the stored triglycerides are a potential chemical energy reserve. in a newborn, all bone marrow is red and is involved in hemopoiesis. with increasing age, much of the bone marrow changes from red to yellow.
a long bone has greater:
length than width
a typical long bone consists of the follow parts:
name the 7
1. diaphysis
2. epiphyses
3. metaphyses
4. articular cartilage
5. periosteum
6. medullary cavity
7. endosteum
the "diaphysis" of long bone is the:

diaphysis means:
bone shaft or body--the long, cylindrical, main portion of the bone.

growing between
the "epiphysis" of long bone is the:

epiphyses means:
are the proximal and distal ends of the bone

growing over
the "metaphyses" of long bone is the:

metaphyses means:
the regions between the diaphysis and the epiphyses. in a growing bone, each metaphysis contains an epiphyseal (growth) plate which is a layer of hyaline cartilge that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length. when a bone ceases to grow in length at about ages 18-21 the carilage in the epiphyseal plate is repleaces be bone; the resulting bony structure is known as the epiphyseal line

the "articular cartilage" of long bone is the:
is a thin layer of hyline cartilage covering the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms an articulation (joint) with another bone. articular cartilage reduces friction and absorbs shock at freely moveable joints.
the "periosteum" of long bone is the:

surrounds the external bone surface wherever it is not covered by articular cartilage. It is composed of an outer fibrous layer of dense irregular connective tissue and an inner osterogenic layer that consists of cells. Some of the cells of the periosteum enable bone to grow in thickness, but not in length. The periosteum also proects the bone, assists in fracture repaire, helps noursih bone tissue, and serves as an attachment point for ligaments and tendons. It is attached to the underling bone through perforating fibers

perforating (sharpey's) fibers are
thick bundles of collagen fibers that extend from the periosteum into hte extracellular bone matrix
the "medullary cavity" of long bone is the:

hollow, cylinderical space within the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow in adults

marrow pith
the "endosteum" of long bone is the:

thin membrane that lines the internal bone surface facing the medullary cavity. it contains a single layer of cells and a small amount of connective tissue