• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Humans have surpassed the Earth’s capacity to support us.

- We are using 30% more of the planet’s resources than are available on a sustainable basis.
Scientists gather information about something not well known or that cannot be manipulated in experiments.
Observational (descriptive) science
Research that proceeds in a structured manner using experiments to test hypotheses through the scientific method.
Hypothesis-driven science
This type of experiment yield the strongest evidence.
Manipulative experiments
This type of experiment shows real-world complexity.
Natural experiments
A widely accepted explanation of one or more cause-and-effect relationships.
The study of good and bad, right and wrong.

- Relativists: ethics vary with social context.

- Universalists: right and wrong remains the same across cultures and situations.
Application of ethical standards to relationships between human and non-human entities.
Environmental ethics
Involves the fair treatment of all people with respect to the environment, regardless of race, income, or ethnicity.
Environmental Justice
The accumulated wealth of Earth.
Natural capital
Which nation has the largest ecological footprint?
What is the fastest growing cause that leads to a large ecological footprint?
The burning of fossil fuels to release carbon dioxide.
Do vegetarians have a smaller ecological footprint than meat eaters?
Yes; Animals use the energy in their food for their metabolism, so only 10% of the calories they eat are available to the meat eater.
Model that measures the impact in terms of pollution or resource consumption.
IPAT model
What is the hardest part of challenge of sustaining human well‐being?
Resolving the energy-economy-environment dilemma
Name three options to address climate change.
1.Mitigation: reduce pace and magnitude of climate change.

2.Adaptation: reduce adverse impacts of changes.

3. Suffer the consequences.
Rank in the feeding hierarchy.
Trophic levels
Scavenge waste products or dead bodies.
Break down leaf litter and other non-living material.
A species with a strong or wide-reaching impact far out of proportion to its abundance.
Keystone species
A community changes in response to a disturbance, but later returns to its original state.
The application of population ecology to the study of human populations
Less dense ice floats on liquid water which does what to aquatic species?
Insulates water from cold so aquatic species can survive winter.
Energy needed to change substance to higher energy state (calories/gram).
Latent heat
Name three types of polymers that are essential to life.
1. Proteins
2. Nucleic acids
3. Carbohydrates

- Lipids are not polymers, but are also essential.
Produce tissues, provide structural support, store energy, and transport substances.

- Can serve as enzyme: molecules that promote chemical reactions.
A chemically diverse group of compounds grouped together because they don’t dissolve in water.
Energy can change forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.
First Law of Thermodynamics
The nature of energy changes from a more-ordered to a less-ordered state.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Output resulting from a system moving in one direction acts as an input that moves the system in the other direction.
Negative feedback loop

- Body temperature
Instead of stabilizing a system, it drives it further toward an extreme
Positive feedback loop
Where nutrients remain for varying amounts of time
Pools (reservoirs)
Movement of nutrients among pools.
Conversion of solar energy to chemical energy by autotrophs.
Primary production
Energy remaining after respiration, used to generate biomass.
Net primary production
Ecosystems whose plants rapidly convert solar energy to biomass.
High net primary productivity
Organisms that gain energy by feeding on others.
Heterotrophs (consumers)
Nitrogen gas is combined (fixed) with hydrogen by nitrogen-fixing bacteria or lightning to become ammonium.
Nitrogen fixation
Bacteria that convert ammonium ions first into nitrite ions then into nitrate ions.

- Animals obtain nitrogen by eating plants or other animals.