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22 Cards in this Set

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Reasons for the patterns of growth
Biotic potential exceeds environmental resistance: birth rates exceed death rates
humans added to the earth each hour
9,000
Reasons for the Human Population Explosion
Causes of disease recognized
-Improvements in nutrition
-Discovery of antibiotics
-Improvements in medicine
-Increase in number of women who actually reach child-bearing age
-Short doubling times in some countries
Average Number of Children, Grandchildren, and Great Grandchildren
America -14
Germany -5
Africa -258
High-income, highly developed, industrialized countries
United States, Japan, Canada
Average GNI per capita = $26,710
Middle-income, moderately developing countries
Latin America, South Africa, China?
Average GNI per capita = $1,850
Low-income, developing countries
Western and central Africa, India, central Asia
Average GNI per capita = $430
Developed countries
16% of the world’s population
Control 81% of the world’s wealth
Low-income developing countries
41% of the world’s population
Control 3.4% of the world’s gross national income
Human Poverty Index for Developing Countries
The HPI was developed by the UN to illustrate the disproportionate distribution of
wealth between and within countries. The HPI indicates 10%-15% of people in
developed and ~45% of those in developing countries are poor.
Human pressure on the environment caused by three factors
Population size
Affluence
Technology
environmental misuse
Developing countries sustaining a high fertility rate coupled
with developed countries placing a disproportionate demand
on natural resources results in
Global Conditions for a Sustainable Population. What do we do to offset this dilemma?
-Lower fertility rates (stabilize population)
-Consumption must decrease
-Protect the environment (stewardly action must increase)
Basic Human Needs
Drinkable Water
Edible Food
Safe Housing
Health Care
An Education
A Job
What are the impacts of rapid growth on a population that
is largely engaged in subsistence agriculture?
There are 6 scenarios, all of which are seen:
-Reform the system of land ownership where land is handed down to family members causing smaller and smaller plots
-Intensify cultivation of existing land to increase production per unit area; soil overused and soil deteriorates
-Open new land to farm be burning/deforestation
-Move to cities and seek employment
-Engage in illicit activities for income
-Move to other countries
Consequences of Exploding Populations
deforestation
resource depletion
loss of agricultural land
biodiversity
disease
pest resistance
wetlands
Affluence in the United States
Consume the largest share of 11 of 20 major commodities (Al, coffee, Cu, Pb, Oil,
oilseeds, natural gas, rubber, Zn, Tin/Sn)
Eat more than three times the global average in meat
Lead the world in paper consumption (725
lbs per person per year!)
GOOD: Environment improves with increasing affluence as quality of drinking water, sewage treatment, and refuse collection increase; we are
able to pay for conservation/management of
environmental resources
Affluence in the United States
BAD:
We lead world in production of pollutants
Enables wealthy to clean up immediate environment by transferring waste (pollutants) to more distant locations.
Affluent isolate themselves and unaware of the environmental stresses caused by their consumptive lifestyles.
population profile
a bar graph showing the number or proportion of people (males to females)
at each age for a given population

can show the historical
events such as the Great Depression,
Baby Boom after WWII, etc.

It can also be used to predict the various
demands for goods and services by
different age cohorts in the future.
Calculating Fertility Rates and Doubling Times
(CBR – CDR)/10 = Rate of increase or decrease
in population per 1,000 per year

70 / Rate of Increase = Doubling Time
A stable population is only produced if, and only if
the CBR and CDR are =
Human Poverty Index for Developing Countries
1. a long healthy life 2. Knowledge 3. standard of living