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163 Cards in this Set

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What are the distinguishing characteristics of Odonata?
long slender wings
long narrow abdomen
minimal antennae
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Blattaria?
hypognathous head (below thorax, concealed by pronotum)
tegmina (leathery wings)
flat spiny legs
no pupal stage
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Orthoptera?
females have ovipositors
tegmina (leathery wings)
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Dermaptera?
pinching cercae
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Hemiptera?
"beak" off the front of the head
conspicuous filiform antennae (threadlike)
pronotum trapezoidal
scutellum triangular
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Homoptera?
membranous wings or no wings(like aphids)
long antennae
cornicles secrete
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Coleptera?
line between elytra
mandibles
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Diptera?
**haltiers
most have club-like antennae
big wrap-around eyes
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Hymenoptera?
constricted waist
hamules on wings (holds wings together)
stingers (only women- modified ovipositors!!)
What are the distinguishing characteristics of Lepidoptera?
coiled mouthparts
labial palps
scaled wings
What kind of Colepteran has a snout-like mouth?
weevils
What order has hamules?
Hymenoptera
cornicle?
tubular projections from the abdomen of an aphid
scutellum?
a small plate on the thorax of insects, posterior to the pronotum
Tegmina?
leathery wings
Differends between dragonflies and damselflies?
Damselflies hold their wings upright
while
dragonflies hold them horizontally.
Term describing down-turned mouthparts, as in Blattaria?
Hypognathous
define holometabolous
"complete change" life cycle
from egg
to several larval instars
to pupa
to imago
define hemimetabolous
"half change" life cycle
from egg
to several larval instars
to imago
no pupae
define ametabaoulous
" without change" life cycle
from egg
to several larval instars
to several imago instars
no pupae!
define imago
Adult; the last stage of development of an insect, after the last ecdysis of an incomplete metamorphosis, or after emergence from the pupa where the metamorphosis is complete
define instar
developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each molt (ecdysis)
define sub-imago.
which order is charachterized by this?
exists in the Ephemeroptera (mayflies). Insects at this stage have functional wings but are not yet sexually mature.
what kind of life cycle is employed by Ephemeroptera?
Holometabolism with sub-imago
Describe the typical reproductive system of insects. (meiosis/mitosis, birth, chromosomes)
sexual
oviparous
diploid with haploid gametes
term that means ewgg laying?
Oviparous
cell with one set of chromosomes is called ___.
haploid
what happens in meiosis 1 & 2?
1: exchange DNA (2 diploid recombinant cells)
2: create gametes (haploid)
Where is an individual egg stored in an insect?
ovariole (of ovary)
what is an insects "vagina"?
genital chamber (copulation takes place)
What is an accessory gland?
female repro: provides secretions for egg attachment, protection and nourishment
Male: provide secretions that mix with the sperm to protect and preserve the sperm
what is a spermatheca?
stores spermatozoa or spermatophore
associated with a spermathecal gland which provides secretions
What is the general term for an external organ of a male organism that is specialized to deliver sperm during copulation?
Intromittent organ
What is an insect intromittent organ?
the male aedeagus, whose function is directly analogous to that of the vertebrate penis.
paired organs which help the male hold on to the female during copulation are called...?
claspers
aphids exhibit what kind of polymorphism?
cyclical polymorphism

spring & summer: asexual repro & apterous
autumn: sexual and winges
winter: eggs
a ____ founds a new colony in the spring.
foundress (as in aphids)
migratory locusts exhibit what kind of polymorphism?
phase polymorphism
-solitary and gregarious phases (differences in color & shape are hormone induced)
eusocial hymenopterans exhibit what kind of polymorphism?
caste polymorphism

winged founders, workers, drones, queen
what are 2 examples of insects that exhibit sexual dimorphism?
stag beetles, dobsonflies

males have big mandibles
what is the term used to indicate the number of broods or generations of an organism in a year?
voltinism
what are the respective terms for 1 generation per year, 2 generations per year or more than 2 generations per year?
univoltine
bivoltine
multivoltine
what is meant by the term "semi-voltine"?
generations born every other year
(large insects, some cicadas take many years)
most common strategy for mate finding?
pheromones
How do crickets find mates?
auditory
How can sperm transfer be direct or indirect?
transfer directly to female
or
leave it behind on leaf or stalk for her to pick up
live birth is called ____.
And what orders exhibit?
vivapary (vivaparous insects)

some Diptera, aphids, Dermaptera, Blattaria
The mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos develop inside eggs that are retained within the mother's body until they are ready to hatch...?
And what orders exhibit?
ovovivipary

Thysanoptera(thrips), Coleoptera, Diptera, Blattaria
development without fertilization is called...?
parthenogenesis
what is it called when 1 ewgg has more than 1 embryo?
polyembryony
(some hymenopterans, all the same!)
male and female organs in 1 individual (but they work) is called
functional hermaphroditism
when males are absent, females repro asexually, when males are present, they switch to sex. This is called _______.
faculatative parthenogenesis
when the only option is parthenogenesis, it is called...?
obligatory parthenogenesis (as opposed to faculatative parthenogenesis)
aging after maturity is called...?
senescence
reasons for lifespan variation among species?
body size
habitat productivity
nutrient density of food
Reasons for lifespan variation within a species?
temp/climate
habitat productivity
food quality
a stage during adverse conditions when metabolism slows but life functions continue??
Quiescence
a stage of prolonged dormancy during which endocrine functions change, slow then stop?
Diapause
The kind of complete insect metamorphosis in which the different larval instars represent two or more different forms of larva?
hypermetamorphosis
(usually exhibited in parasitoid insects)
what is a biological population?
an interbreeding populatiion
aspects of populations that ecologists are interested in?
most importantly: size over time/population growth/dynamics
also population
size density
age structure
gender distributions
behaviors (of popul.)
define population dynamics.
changes in population over time
equation for population size?
previous pop size + births - deaths + immigration - emigration.

OR:
N_t =( N_t-1) +b -d +i -e
term for births per unit time?
natality
Term for deaths per unit time?
mortality
term for natality of an organism (but can apply to populations)
fecundity
exponential growth must slow as N reaches ______.
K: carrying capacity
name & describe the 2 types of hypothetical growth.
additive: a constant amount added
exponential: constant growth rate (can compile & compound)
a hypothetical population at equilibrium is called____.
characteristic abundance
define outbreak
a population that rapidly rises above characteristic abundance. Usually only happens when colonizing a new habitat or under optimal conditions.
What is the name for an s shaped curve?
logistic growth curve or "sigmoid curve"
(N slopes off as it approaches K)
define altricial
Greek: requiring nourishment
refers to a pattern of growth and development in organisms which are incapable of moving around on their own soon after hatching or being born
*characteristic of K-selected species
characteristics of K selected species?
few offspring
high survivorship
best suited to stable environments
usually larger bodied
altricial (slow development)
characteristics of R selected species?
many offspring
low survivorship
more likely to outbreak- as they can quickly take advantage of good environmental conditions
survivorship curves: type 1
eg: human
most die off in old age
survivorship curves: type 2
death is as likely at any time of life
survivorship curves: type 3
most die before maturity
the time it takes to reach reproductive age is called...?
generation time
word for a generation ( all individuals born at the same time)?
cohort
What problem does generational lag time pose to future cohorts?
cohorts may not be able to adapt to changing conditions
when "N" exceeds "K" this is called...? and why is it a problem
a population overshoot: overconsumption of resources
3 possible results of an population overshoot?
oscillations, settling to equilibrium or crash
term for local extinction
extirpation
possible repercussions of a population crash?
very low numbers
genetic bottle-necking,
not enough mates, especially in harems
extirpation (local extinction)
Density dependent positive feedback effects with an "N" increase?
potential natality increase
competing species may decline
Density dependent negative feedback effects with an "N" increase?
intraspecific competition for mates & resources
predation & parasitism increase
environmental factors such as temp, moisture, nutrient avail & natural disasters are density _____.
independent factoirs
Temperatures:
range necessary for enzyme function, and optimal range?
enzymes: 22-35
optimal: 32-35
species interaction where both are harmed?
competition
species interactions where one benefits and the other is harmed?
parasitism and predation
species interaction where both benefit?
mutualism
species interaction where one benefits and the other is unaffected?
comensalism
describe pollen
packet containing generative nucleus (sperm) and tube nucleus in a protective coating
Plants and animals have been coevolving since the ____era ____MYA.
Mesozoic era, 265-245 MYA
What nutrients does the plant provide for a co-evolved insect?
sugars and nutrients in nectar
protein rich pollen.
red flowers are ____pollinated.
bird or butterfly- other insects can't see red.
"landing lights" flowers provide for insects?
nectar guides
4 orders that are the most common pollinators?
Coleoptera
Diptera
Hymenoptera
Lepidoptera
______ insects are secialists to one type of flower
monolectic (eg orchid moths)
______ insects are generalists and visit many types of flowers.
polylectic (eg bees)
what are the advantages of monolectic and polylectic strategies?
monolectic- reduce competition, specialized food to suit insects needs through coevolution.
polylectic- many and diverse food sources
How many species of bee worldwide?
30K
what is a good source of nutrients for egg production?
pollen (protein)
bee adaptations:
What are the clusters of hairs on tibia for polen collection?
pollen brushes
bee adaptations:
ring of setae within which pollen is packed.
pollen baskets
bee adaptations:
branched hairs that can pick up more pollen with higher surface area
plumose hairs
bee adaptations:
tongue-like mouthpart for tapping and feeding on nectar?
glossa
a fig is an internal ___that is always pollinated by a ______ ______.
inflorescence

monolectic wasp
When orchids cheat male insects with pheromones it is called...?
pseudocopulation
describe the ant acacia relationship.
mutualism- plants provide shelter ands food, ants provide protection from predators.
list 5 basic trophic levels
primary producers
primary consumers (eg insects)
secondary consumers (eg insectivores)
tertiary consumers
detritivores (bacteria & fungi)
50% of species are ______, (meaning plant eaters)
phytophagous
list a few phytophagy strategies
leaf chewers
sap & cytoplasm suckers
flower, pollen & nectar feeders
leaf miners
borers
gall formers
plant resistance to pytophagy:
nutritional defenses
large quantity of low nutrition tissue
plant resistance to pytophagy:
physical defense
hard seed coats
lots of sticky sap or resin
plant resistance to pytophagy:
chemical defenses
secondary metabolites made to inibit phytophagy from various insects
plant chemical defenses:
which can block digestion?
protease inhibitors
plant chemical defenses: a seed insecticide
pyrethrins (in pyrethrum seeds)
plant chemical defenses: repellants made by symbiotic fungi of grasses
certain alkaloids
plant chemical defenses: hormone mimics that can interfere with insects growth, nervpous system, repro, etc.
insect growth regulators
insects that are host plant specific are called
monphagous
4 steps of phytophagous feeding behavior?
host plant recognition
bite/pierce
feeding
cessation, dispersal
plant chemicals that produce negative stimuli
repellants
arrestants
supressants
anti-feeding comounds
plant chemicals that produce poititive stimuli
attractants
incitants
phagostimulants (eating stimuli)
what is a negative stimulus for most insects is usually a positive for the correct _________.
monophagous insect
give 4 examples of insectivorous plants
pitfall traps (pitcher plants)
snap traps (venus fly trap)
sticky traps (sundew)
aquatic suction traps (bladderwort)
eating insects is called...?
entomophagy
when predators contribute to the control of phytophagous insects this is called...?
top down control

(predator's predators can eliminate top down control though!)
which order consists of ALL predators?
Odonata
(nymphs and adults)
the most common strategy for predacious insects is....?
random searching

less common: ambush, hunting/stalking
the rarest type of predation strategy?
trapping (eg cave glowworm)
name for a parasite that kills the host (only 1 host)
parasitoid
_____ _____parasitoids hunt for victims, usually near victims preferred food plant.
adult females
when parasitoids victimize other parasitoids these are called...?
hyperparasitoids
Parasitoid wasps often have a long _______ which can _____the host with toxins.
ovipositor

paralyze
parasitoid fly larvae are deposited where?
attched to outside of host- no ovipositor

(hypermetamorphic first instar must find host)
a parasite that feeds on a specific host permanantly is called...?
continuous parasite
a parasite that feeds on host temporarily is called...?
transitory parasite
most insect parasites are blood eating, aka ______ and are from the orders ___,___ & ____.
hematophagous

Diptera, Siphonaptera (fleas) and Phthiraptera
parasitism that steals resources from another species?
kleptoparasite
parsitism in which the parasite lays thier eggs in another's nest in order to get free care & feeding of offspring
cuckoo parasitism
parasitism in which a social hymenopteran enters anothers nest and takes over the queens role. workers feed the imposters offspring
social parasitism
parasitism in which certain ants steal worker pupae from another species to work in a foreign colony
slavery
term for the theft from weaker colonies by stronger colonies of same species.
intraspecific theft
term for infection by parasitic fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue?
myiasis
term for larvae living inside the gut?
enteric myasis (rare)
word for "active at twilight"
crepuscular (eg. mosquitoes)
defense by hiding in soil, plants, or constructed cases is aclled...?
concealment
camouflage colotration anatomy or behavior is called....?
crypsis
types of camouflage coloration?
substrate mimickry
outline disruption
startle coloration strategies?
eyespots can provide false targets or mimick larger animal
flash colors startle & confuse predators
cryptic behavior examples?
motionlessness
sudden escape (drop to ground)
examples of chemical defenses against predators?
unpalatability (poisonous or nauseating secretions)
repulsive odor
examples of physical defenses against predators?
spiny surfaces
stinging
biting
unpalatability is often accompanied by ________ colors and behaviors (to warn away predators)
aposematic

(Greek: sign away from)
aposematic behaviors include ....?
conspiucuous gregarious behavior
flying in full view
warning movements, smells, sounds,
sluggish effort to escape, repulsive taste & durable bodice
mimicry in which 2 unpalatable species look alike?
Mullerian Mimicry
mimicry in which one palatable species looks like the unpalatable species
Batesian mimicry
3 types of detritivorous/saprophagous insects?
dead plant eaters (eg. termites)
Dead animal eaters (eg Diptera)
Feces eaters (dung beetles)
name for an organisms that eats the bactera and fungi on decaying plant tissue?
shredders
the importance of detrivores/saprophages?
aid decomposers (fungi & bactera) in recycleing nutrients
forensic entomologists use _____ of maggots to determine time of death.
ontogeny :)
_____ _____ clean bones for taxidermists.
dermestid beetles (yuck)