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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a phrase?
A group of words that makes sense, but cannot stand alone.
What is a sentence?
A group of words that expresses a complete thought. Unlike a phrase, it can stand alone and makes full sense without the help of any additional words.
What is a subject?
The part of the sentence that names the person, idea, or thing about which something is being said.
What is a predicate?
The part of the sentence that says something about the person, idea, or thing named by the subject.
What is the 'understood' subject?
A subject which is not expressed in a sentence, but understood by both the speaker and the listener.
What is a noun?
A noun names something or someone.
What is a proper noun?
A noun that names a particular person, place or thing (James, London, Christmas).
What is an abstract noun?
Abstract nouns name qualities or states of being that exist only in our minds (cleverness, courage, sorrow).
What is a collective noun?
Collective nouns name groups of people or collections of things regarded as a whole (crew, crowd, forest, library).
What is a common noun?
Common nouns name members of or items in a whole class of people or things (bicycle, brother, party).
What is a verb?
A verb denotes action or being. Its function in a sentences is to tell us what the subject does or is.
What is a pronoun?
A pronoun is a word that stands for/in place of a noun. They identify people or things without explicitly naming them.
What is an adjective?
Adjectives tell us more about (qualify) nouns and pronouns.
What is an adverb?
An adverb is a word that adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
What is a preposition?
A preposition is a 'relating' word. It relates either a noun or a pronoun or a noun equivalent to another word, which may be a noun, a pronoun, a verb, or an adjective.
What is a conjunction?
A conjunction is a word used to join together or connect words or groups of words.
What is an interjection?
Interjections are words or sounds that express feelings or attitudes, but play no part in the grammar of a sentence.
What is a simple sentence?
A simple sentence is a sentence containing one finite verb and the subject of that verb.
What is the subject-word?
The subject-word is the most important word in the subject. If it is omitted, the link between the subject and the verb is broken.
What is the direct object?
The direct object names the person or thing that 'suffers' the action of the verb, and must be a noun or a pronoun.
What is a transitive verb?
A transitive verb is a verb denoting action and having a direct object.
What is an intransitive verb?
An intransitive verb is a verb denoting action and not having a direct object.
What is the indirect object?
The indirect object is the part of the predicate that names the person or thing affected by the action denoted by the verb - the person or thing to whom or for whom something is done.
What is the subjective complement?
The subjective complement is the word or words that complete the predicate of a verb denoting being.
What is the objective complement?
The objective complement is the word or words that complete the meaning of the direct object of a verb.
What is a finite verb?
A finite verb is a verb that has a subject. It is limited by its subject-word, and takes the verb-form that its subject-word requires.
What is a non-finite verb?
A non-finite verb denotes action or being without having a subject-word. The four kinds are (1) the infinitive, (2) the gerund, (3) the present participle, (4) the past participle.
What is the infinitive?
The infinitive begins with 'to', and acts as (1) a verb-noun; (2) an adverb modifying a verb; (3) an adverb modifying an adjective; (4) as an adjective qualifying a noun.

Her dream is [to become] an actress.
They walked home [to save] the bus fare.
His appeal seems certain [to be rejected].
Have you any fuel [to spare]?
What is the gerund?
The gerund is a verb-form ending in -ing. It always functions as a verb-noun.
What is the present participle?
The present participle is a verb-form ending in -ing, which functions as a verb-adjective. It can (1) qualify a noun/pronoun; (2) introduce an adjective-phrase qualifying a noun/pronoun; (3) form part of an absolute construction; (4) help to form the continuous tenses.

The surgeons report was [encouraging].
[Passing] all the tests with ease, the candidate impressed the selectors.
Conditions [being] favourable, we shall start tomorrow.
The train is [leaving].
What is the past participle?
The past participle is a verb-adjective and can (1) qualify a noun/pronoun; (2) introduce an adjective-phrase qualifying a noun/pronoun; (3) form part of an absolute construction; (4) help to form the passive voice and certain past tenses.

Their [defeated] champion lost his title.
[Having cleared] my desk I went on holiday.
The prototypes having been thoroughly [tested], the engineers had solid grounds for their optimism.
He [was hit] hard.
What is a participle phrase?
They participle phrase is a group of words forming part of a simple sentence. It is introduced by a participle, and qualifies a noun or a pronoun elsewhere in the sentence.

We spoke to the man [standing at the back].
[Bored by the long speech], the audience slept.
What is a gerundive phrase?
A gerundive phrase is introduced by a gerund and it functions as a noun in the sentence to which he belongs. It can be a subject, direct object, or complement of a verb.

[Practising for seven hours a day] perfected his skill.
He bitterly regretted [making an enemy of her].
Her hobby is [collecting old photographs].
What is an infinitive phrase?
An infinitive phrase is introduced by an infinitive, and can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

[To win the pools] is an unlikely solution of a financial crisis.
The chancellor decided [to risk an inflationary budget].
In later years, he was [to lose his inspired touch].
There is no money [to spare for luxuries].
We got ready [to go to bed].
What is apposition?
When two nouns name the same person, thing or idea, they are described as being 'in apposition' to each other.

The intended [victim], a professional [wrestler], soon overpowered his assailants.
The job went to the most experienced [candidate], a middle-aged [woman].
What is an adverbial phrase?
An adverbial phrase begins with an adverb, and only occurs in the predicate. All the words in an adverbial phrase must function as adverbs.

They completed the course [very easily indeed].
You have kept these books [much too long].
What is a clause?
A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate of its own and forming part of a sentence.
What is a main clause?
A main clause is a clause that can stand on its own and make sense without the help of another clause. Also called an independent clause.

[They searched the spy's room] but they did not find his radio.
[The electrician pressed the switch] and the motor started.
What is a coordinating conjunction?
A coordinating conjunction links coordinate clauses: that is, clauses of equal rank.

[When] the orchestra stopped, the audience was silent.
The crowd grew restless [as] the speaker drowned on.
It was obvious [that] he had failed.
What is a double sentence?
A double sentence contains two main clauses, with or without one or more subordinate clauses, linked together by a coordinating conjunction. When the subject of the second clause is the same as the first, it is often omitted, and becomes an 'understood' subject. The second verb may also be omitted.

The weather was fine and we walked every day.
Shall I take the train or the bus?
What is a multiple sentence?
A multiple sentence is constructed in the same way as a double sentence, but contains more than two main clauses. Repetition of the subject is often avoided, and coordinating conjunctions may often be omitted and replaced by a comma.

She sat down and (she) started to read, but (she) went to sleep.
She sat down, started to read, but went to sleep.
What is a subordinate clause?
A subordinate clause is lower in rank than a main clause, and depends on the main clause to help it to express its meaning in the sentence. It contains a subject and a predicate, but it cannot make a complete statement on its own. Also called a dependent clause.

They were awarded the man [who rescued their son].
She felt sorry for her aunt [when she read her letter].
What is a complex sentence?
A complex sentence is a sentence that contains one main clause and at least one subordinate clause.

They rewarded the man who rescued their son.
A quickwitted dealer bought the car that I wanted.