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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When is "a" or "an" used? (6)
- we use them about a single item
- when the identity of the noun is fuzzy
- for professions (a carpenter), nationality (a French) and religion (a Muslim)
- exclamative context : "what a shame!"
- expressions of ratio : 100km an hour
- generic meaning : a tiger is a four legged animal
When is Ø used? (zero article)
- plural of countable nouns and singular uncountable nouns
- generic sense, general truth : Ø Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.
*idiomatic expressions*
-quasi locatives : to go to Ø work (≠ they went to the church near his home)
- transport and communication : they travel by Ø bus - to send by Ø mail
- time expressions : at Ø noon, after Ø nightfall
- meals : They generally have Ø dinner at the same time
- illnesses : to have Ø diabetes (but! to have a fever)
*proper nouns*
- when preceded by a title : Ø General Leclerc, Ø Lady Chatterley
- geographic nouns : Ø Norway, Ø Mount Everest
When is a definite article (the) used?
=> Shared knowledge
*situational determination*
- immediate situation : she has just left _the_ room, Could you fetch me _the_ book
- large(r) situation : ~ titles and functions : The British Prime Minister
~ Institutions : The House of Lords, the Congress
~ Groups : the voters, the workers. Also: the Germans, the Japanese
~ Countries whose nouns are in the plural : the Netherlands, the United States
~ Natural elements : the sky, the moon, the Alps
*contextual determination*
determined by the concept of the text
- anaphoric determination (backward pointing) : She saw a boy, turned out the boy was her nephew
- cataphoric determination (forward pointing) : the dinner that she had prepared, the guest they had been waiting for
When is that/this/those/these used?
*situational reference*
Extra linguistic, takes 4 criteria into consideration: position of the speaker, of the addressee, of what we are talking about and the moment of the interaction.
This/These refers to what is next to the speaker; proximity
That/Those refers to a remoteness from the speaker
Also temporal : "He's finishing his exams this month" "He always remembers those years with nostalgia"
*contextual reference*
-anaphoric reference (backward pointing): something is burning, I can smell that.
-cataphoric reference (forward pointing): this is the news: the European summit will be postponed
*modal values*
dichotomy proximity/remoteness can be spatial, temporal, emotional, psychological
This/These: positive appreciations "This game is totally interesting"
That/These: negative appreciations, distancing effect: "that stupid cousin of yours has called again"
That is sometimes used as an adverb: "the trip wasn't that bad"
plural countable and uncountable nouns
we postulate that a certain quantity exists : this is why we say "some" has an existential meaning
2 different values : quantitative/qualitative
*quantitative value* : /səm/
"some" is unstressed, reduced vowel
Indicates tat a certain quantity exists : "Some friends paid me a visit last week" "She taught her students some vocabulary"
We can find it in interrogative sentences, anticipation of a positive answer "Would you like some more tea?"
*qualitative value* / 's m/
the quantifier is stressed. Different context.
Insists on the fact that we talk about a limited and restricted set
"I like some music" = "I don't like all types of music but only a certain category"
We use it to pass a judgement, to praise something, to express admiration or irony : "Bigard, that's some subtle artist!"
Any : used in 4 different contexts
*Negative statements*
Used in negative sentences: "They won't bring any wine this time"
*Interrogative statements*
When the question is real and that we ask about something we don't know
"Do you know any good jokes?"
*Hypothetical sentences*
When we talk about a situation that might exist or happen but isn't real now
"If there is any thing I can do, let me know"
*Qualitative statements*
Implies an absence of distinction. "Any" presupposes an unlimited choice
"Any five-year old child can use a computer nowadays"
Many is employed with countable nouns "Many of his friends are here"
Many is used with uncountable, and we tend to find it in negative or interrogative sentences "I don't have much to do today"
Few/a few is used with countable nouns
Little/a little with uncountables
Genitive as a determiner
"My cousin's house"
We are talking about a specific house
have meaning : Lina's book
do meaning : America's victory
Classifying Genitive
Refers to a whole class of elements
"a children's book" "a women's magazine"
Independent genitive
linguistic economy
"He broke his car and took his wife's (car)"
Double genitive
combination of the genitive and the of-construction
"a friend of my father's"