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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Endocrine System
Made up of glands that produce hormones that are picked up by blood capillaries (ductless secretion) to target cells
Chemical messengers
Cell Communication 4 ways:
1- Gap Junctions- Join muscle & epithelial cells & allow comm...
2- Neurotransmitters- Synaptic cleft of neuron; usually local
3- Paracrines- By cell diffusion; Local
4- Hormones- Bloodborne messangers; usually far distances
Endocrine Secretions (hormones)
Intracellular effects alter target cell metabolism
Forms floors & walls of 3rd ventricle of brain; regulates primitive fuctions (many thru pituitary)
Pituitary Gland(AKA Hypophysis)
Suspended from hypothalamus by a stalk (AKA infundibulum) & housed in the sella turtica of sphenoid bone.
Anterior Pituitary (AKA Adenohypophysis)
Produces 6 principal hormones
Tropic- Releases hormones
Two of them are non-tropic:
1- GH
2- PRL
Posterior Pituitary (AKA Neurohypophysis)
Made up of nerve fibers; stores hypothalmic sythesized hormones (AKA neuroendocrine reflexes) awaiting nerve signal to release
Anterior Pituitary:
Target cell: Ovaries & Testes
Stim. egg devel. and sperm prod.
Anterior Pituitary:
Target Cell: Ovaries & Testes
Stim. egg release, estrogen, corpus luteum, progesterone secretion, testosterone secretion
Anterior Pituitary
Target cell: Thyroid Gland
stim. thyroid growth & thyroid hormone secretion
Anterior Pituitary
Target cell: Adrenal Cortex
stimulates adrenal cortex growth, secretes cortisol, regulates: glucose, fat, protein, metabolism. Plays role in stress response
Anterior Pituitary: non tropic
Target cell: Mammary Glands & Testes
stim. milk production, enhancement of LH, inc. testosterone
Anterior Pituitary: non tropic
Target cell: liver, bone, muscle, cartilage, fat
stim. tissue growth/cell mitosis
Posterior Pituitary
Target cell: Kidneys
inc. water retention (vasopression and brain neurotransmitter)
Posterior Pituitary
Target cell: uterus and mammary glands
stim. childbirth contractions of uterus, lactation, sexual arousal
Pineal Gland
Roof of 3rd ventricle of brain-shrinks after puberty; produces serotonin (day) & melatonin (night) sleep and awake
Thymus Gland
Below thyroid & above heart- shrinks after puberty; secretes thymopoietin, thymosis, etc... that makes T-lymphocytes (disease fighting)
Thyroid Gland
Lgst endocrine gland; wraps around the trachea, below the larynx; T3- thyiidothyronine, T4- tetraiodothyronine,bone formation, body heat, appetite incr., breakdown of carbs, fat & protein for fuel, alertness, bone growth, skin, hair, nails, teeth
Parathyroid Gland
Embedded in posterior of thyroid; maintains ca++ levels
Adrenal Glands (2 parts)
Sits as a cap on top of each kidney
1- Medula (inner core)- epinephrine & norepinephrine-(fight/flight) raise heart rate, BP, metabolic rate, pulmonary airflow, circulation to muscles
Adrenal Glands (2 parts)
2- Cortex (outer sorrounding) 3 layers:
1- cortisol- incr. stress
2- aldosterone- kidneys electrolyte balance K+ secretion, Na+ absorption
3- sex hormones- estrogen & testosterone
*small insig. amount
Pancreas (Gland)
in pancreas tissue; 3 main secretions
1- Alpha- secrete glucagon/raises glucose
2- Beta- secrete insulin/lowers glucose levels
3- Delta- secrete somatostatin/inhibits growth hormone, burns glucose
Islets of langerhans
In pancreas; produce hormones; rest of pancreas produces digestive enzymes
Gonads (Gland)
1- Ovaries- estrogen, progesterone (pregnancy hormone)
2- Testes- testosterone
3- Placenta- progesterone
Mechanism of hormone actions
1- hormone crosses membrane
2- hormone combines with receptor
3- mRNA activated (turn on gene)
4- mRNA enters cytoplasm (makes something)!
Mechanism of non-steroid hormones
1- hormone binds to receptor on a cell membrane
2- adenylate cyclase activated
3- ATP converts to cAMP
4- cAMP promotes reaction leading to cellular changes
*no hormone, no G protein, nothing happens!
What biochemical are steroids derived from?
A hormone that builds molecules; "the parent hormone," conversion of chol to pregnenolone, forms in mitochondria, then it's shuttles back and forth between mitochondrion & E.R for enzymatic transformations
What subcellular organelle assists in the control of non-steroid hormones?
Golgi Complex
What is a second messanger
Structure of Thyroid gland
1- located in the neck, close to the trachea
2- on it's surface light colored nodules- parathyroid glands
3- thyroid epithelial cells are arranged in spheres called thyroid follicles
4- follicles are filled with colloid
5- extrafollicular cells secrete hormone calcitonin
What hormones are produced by each?
T3 & T4
3 general mechanisms of hormonal control
1- rate of production- pos. & neg. feedback (less or more)
2- rate of delivery- location of target cells; how vascular tissue is
3- rate of degradation and elimination- kidneys clear hormones/urine hormones digested
Stores sperm cells
Ductus Deferens/Male
connects with seminal vesicle
neutralizes acid from urine
Enhance sperm mobility
Bulbourethral Gland/Male
Seminal Vesicles/Male
Secretes seminal fluid, neutralizes acid found in the female repro. tract; incr. PH, fructose prostaglandins
Produce sperm and secrete male sex hormone
What 2 cell types are involved in the production & care of sperm cells?
1- Sertoli- support, nourish, & regulate spermatogonia
2- spermatogenic cells- stimulate mitosis, make sperm cells
What cell type secretes androgens (testosterone)?
Leydig (interstitial cells)
What hormones control the production of sperm cells and secretion of testosterone?
1- FSH- sperm cells
2- LH- secretes testos...
Receives sperm; birth canal
Directs sperm into the uterus
Harbors embryo, provides nutrients, expels fetus
Uterine tubes/Female
Guides egg to uterus
Produces egg
Ovarian cycle
Egg matures, erupts from ovary, & travels to uterus
1- Egg matures
2- Follicular Phase (1-14 days)
3- Ovulation (14th day)
4- Luteal Phase ( 15-28 days)
What endocrine gland & 2 hormones control the ovarian cycle?
Anterior pituitary gland and FSH & LH
Menstrual cycle
1- Menstrual stage- 5days
2- Proliferative- day 6-14
3- Secretory- day 15-26
4- Pre-menstrual- day 27-28
5- Menstrual- period begins
What endocrine structure controls the menstrual cycle?
What hormones control each stage of the menstrual cycle?
Estrogen and Progesterone