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70 Cards in this Set

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The moving of people from one group to another area when their population begins to increase and food or other resources become scarce.


The sharing of goods and services among people.

Optimal Foraging Theory

This is a model that helps predict how an animal behaves when it's searching for food. Although obtaining food provides the animal with energy, searching for and capturing the food require both energy and time.

Extended Family

A family that is made up of parents, children, and other kin relations bound together as a social unit.


Australian Aborigine notion that exists in the "other world," the world associated with the time of creation, where a person goes in visions and after death.

The Original Affluent Society

A theory stating that contemporary foraging societies usually have an adequate and reliable food base and that these foragers expended minimal labor to provide for their basic physical needs. Also known as leisured societies. The Ju/'hoansi were used in a study for this theory.

Cross-cousin Marriage

A common marriage rule found in foraging societies where one can marry the offspring of one's father's sister (paternal aunt) or one's mother's brother (maternal uncle). A male can marry his paternal aunt's daughter or maternal uncle's daughter.


A type of social structure that emphasizes equality among different statuses. Constant circulation of material goods in such societies not only enhances and maintains kin ties through mutual obligations, but also inhibits the accumulation of wealth by any individuals in the society. There are very small differences in wealth among individuals. Everyone must share what they hunt or gather, but the one who has the goods is able to determine who gets what when he shares.

Marginal Environments

Environments that are not suitable for intensive agriculture and tremendous population increases.

1.) Deserts

2.) Tropical Rain Forests

3.) Arctic Areas

Desert Environment Foraging Societies

!Kung San - Kalahari Desert - SW Africa

1.) Ju/'hoansi San - Kalahari Desert - SW Africa

2.) Hottentots (Khoi) - Kalahari Desert - SW Africa

3.) G/ui San

4.) !Xo San

5.) Kua

Great Basin Shoshone - Native American

Australian Aborigines

1.) Arrente

Tropical Rain Forest Environment Foraging Societies

Pygmies - Central Africa

1.) Efe' - sustained relationships with outsiders

2.) Mbuti - reside in luxuriant Ituri rain forest

3.) Aka - NE area of the Congo-Zaire

4.) Baka - SE Cameroon

Semang - Malaysian Thai Peninsula

Arctic Region Environment Foraging Societies

Eskimo (Inuit)

1.) Upiat - Native Alaskans from the North/Northwest

2.) Yupik and Siberian - Native Alaskans from Southwest and St. Lawrence Island

Types of Reciprocity

1.) Generalized Reciprocity

2.) Balanced Reciprocity

3.) Negative Reciprocity

Generalized Reciprocity

Reciprocity based on the assumption that immediate return is not expected and that the value of the exchanges will balance out in the long run.

Balanced Reciprocity

Reciprocity based on an explicit expectation of immediate return.

Negative Reciprocity

The attempt to get something for nothing. No reciprocity at all.

They ate the animal's stomach.

Because vegetation historically was scarce in Arctic regions, it was considered a prized food. What did male Eskimo hunters do so as to obtain the valued undigested vegetation?

The groups have to mobilize and move to another area.

What do hunter/gatherers (foragers) have to do as resources become scarce in one site?

Breast Feeding

Theory stating that this contributes to low fertility rates because it stimulates the production of prolactin, a hormone that inhibits ovulation and pregnancy.

Eskimo Song Duel

An example of dispute resolution among Eskimos. This was often used to resolve conflicts between males over a particular female. Since Eskimo society lacks specific rules of marriage, males would sometimes accuse others of wife stealing. The two males would perform this and the crowd resolved the conflict by selecting a winner.

Band Society Gender Relations

Gender relations tend to be more egalitarian. Men and women have more or less equal status.


Complex societies having political institutions that unite horticulturalists or pastoralist groups into a political system.


An inheritance pattern in which land or other wealth is transmitted from generation to generation through the eldest male.


The transfer of some form of wealth from the descent group of the groom to that of the bride. Paying to marry a lady.


Umbrella-like social groupings that consist of two or more clans.


The system of ordering society in which people are divided into sets based on perceived social or economic status.


The marriage rule requiring a widower to marry one of his deceased wife's sisters.


Rule by elders (usually male) who control the material and reproductive resources of the community.


A magical strategy, often using different objects, that is believed to bring about either harmful or beneficial results.

Matrilineal Descent Group

A social descent group whose members calculate descent through the female line from a commonly known female ancestor.


Descent groups made up of clans or phratries that divide the entire society into two equal divisions.


An attempt to call on a supernatural source of power to sanction and bear witness to the truth or falsity of an individual's testimony.


A person, sacred object, or shrine believed to have special or supernatural abilities.

Avunculocal rule of residence

A rule of residence found in matrilineal societies in which a married couple resides in with the husband's mother's brother.

Ambilineal Descent Group

A social kinship group formed by choosing to trace relationships through either a male or a female line.

Limited Purpose Money (Special Purpose Money)

Money that is restricted to the purchase of specific goods and services.

General Purpose Money (Multipurpose Money)

Money that can be used as a medium of exchange for most of the good sand services in a society.


1.) Enables people to pay for a good or service, and then it circulates to allow for subsequent purchases.

2.) It serves as a uniform standard of value for goods and services within a society.

3.) It has a store of value. It's standard of value does not fluctuate radically over time.

4.) Serves as a form of deferred payment. It can express a promise to pay in the future with the same standard value.


A form of agriculture in which people use a limited, non-mechanized technology to cultivate plants.


A mythical ancestor, usually a plant or an animal, that symbolizes a particular group.


Belief in kinship with or a mystical relationship with a group or an individual totem.

A system of social organization based on totemic affiliations.

Complementary Opposition

the formation of groups that parallel one another as political antagonists.

Types of Horticulture

1.) Slash and Burn Cultivation

2.) Subsistence Gardens

Names of Horticulturalists

1.) The Yanomamo - Amazon

2.) The Tsembaga - New Guinea

3.) The Iroquois - North America


Groups whose subsistence activities are based on the care of domesticated animals.

Names of Pastoralists

1.) Bedouins (Camel Breeders) - Arabia/ N Africa

2.) Saami (Lapps) - Reindeer - Scandinavia -

3.) Eveny, Tungus - Reindeer - Siberia

4.) Basseri, Qashqai, Bahktiari - Iran

5.) Maasai, Nuer, Karimojong, Pokot, Sebei, Samburu, Dinka - Cattle - East Africa

"Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies"

Study published by Margaret Mead

Margaret Mead

Published a study stating that gender roles were different among tribes. Some tribes see males and females as equals, while others see one sex or the other as dominant.

Theories of Tribal Warfare

1.) Protein Shortage - Marvin Harris

2.) Reproductive Strategy Theory - William Durham

3.) Multidimensional (Historical) Theory - Walter Goldschmidt

Internal Conflict Resolution Strategies (three o's)

1.) Ordeals - (hot water ordeal)

2.) Oaths - Swearing to god

3.) Oracles - prophetic powers to make legal decisions.

Property Rights in Tribal Societies

In tribal societies, an individual gains certain rights, privileges, and obligations with respect to property through inheriting land and animals through kinship networks, or what is described as relational wealth.

The 2 Type of Sodalities in Tribal Societies

1.) Kinship Sodalities - Including lineages and clans. Political organization.

2.) Nonkin Sodalities - Voluntary and involuntary associations. Used mostly for alliances

More than 1000 miles annually.

What is the travel distance of the Tungus tribe?

Sumptuary Rules

Cultural norms and practices used to differentiate the higher-status groups from the lower-status groups.


A society in which people rule not because of their worldly wealth and power, but because of their place in the moral and sacred order. Divine Rule.

Potlach Feast

A form of redistributional exchange found among many Northwest Native American Groups. Luxurious items get burned as a show of solidarity.

Kula Ring

A form of reciprocal exchange involving ceremonial items in the Trobriand Islands. They only deal with the allies they have made to develop trust relationships.

Regional Symbiosis

The pattern in which a particular society resides in an ecological habitat divided into different resource areas that become interdependent.


The settling of legal disputes through a formal, centralized authority.

5,000 - 100,000 people

What is the population of Chiefdoms?

Kpelle Chief property ownership.

Property ownership among this tribe is said to be owned formally by the paramount chief (the highest ranking chief), who divided it into portions for each village in the chiefdom. These portions were then distributed in parcels to families of various lineages. One land is parceled out, it remained within the lineage until the lineage died out. The paramount chief is only a steward holding land for the group he represented.

Warfare in Hawaiian Chiefdoms

Warfare in this chiefdom is initiated by the paramount chief to eliminate the competition from lesser chiefs.

Male dominated. Unequal. Male dominates religion, politics, and economy.

What are the gender relations in Chiefdoms?

Patriarchal Society

Male-dominated society.

Totem Poles

The ultimate status and religious symbols of the Native Americans of the Northwest Coast indicating high social standing and linkages between the chiefs and the ancestral deities.

They are foragers but built with chiefdom-like political system in the sense that they have power of the chief, the power is hereditary, and the power of the chief is linked to food storage technology and food distribution.

Why are Northwestern US Chiefdom's atypical?


Groups based on kinship, age, gender, or other prin-ciples that provide for political organization.

Marvin Harris

Who believed that tribal warfare was due to the Protein Shortage Theory?

William Durham

Who believed that tribal warfare was due to the Reproductive Strategy Theory?

Walter Goldshmidt

Who believed that tribal warfare was due to the Multidimensional (Historical) Theory?