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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
set of instructions that a computer follows to complete a task (software)
person who can design, create and test computer programs (software developer)
the physical devices that make up a computer
central processing unit (CPU)
the part of the computer that actually runs programs

most important component
without it cannot run programs
used to be a huge device
CPUs located on small chips
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
arithmetic operations and logical operations
control unit
supervises activities of hardware, oversees instruction hardware
main memory (Random Access Memory)
where computer stores a program while program is running, and data used by the program

divided into many memory locations, locations have a unique address
data and instructions are stored in one or more consecutive memory locations
random: information is found by address
volatile memory:
contents are erased when computer is turned off
secondary storage
can hold data for long periods of time
flash memory, disk drive
data the computer collects from other devices or people
data produced by the computer for other people or devices
output device
formats and presents output. i.e. printer
application software
programs that make computer useful for everyday tasks
system software
programs that control and manage basic operations of a computer
assembly language
uses short words (mnemonics) for instructions instead of binary numbers
translates assembly language to machine language for execution by CPU
low-level language
close in nature to machine language i.e. assembly language
high-level language
allows simple creation of powerful and complex programs, closer to english, i.e. python
key words
predefined words used to write program in high-level language

each word has a specific meaning
perform operations on data
set of rules to be followed when writing programs
individual instruction used in high-level language
translates high-level language program into separate machine-language program
translates and executes instructions in high-level language program
-used by python language
-interprets one instruction at a time
source code
statements written by programmer
syntax error
prevents code from being translated
program development cycle:
design the program
write the code
correct syntax errors
test the program
correct logic errors
set of well-defined logical steps that must be taken to perform a task; step-by-step procedure for solving a problem

-done in a finite amount of time
-done with a finite amount of data
-clear and unambiguous
structured algorithm
one broken down into cohesive tasks
informal language that has no syntax rule
not meant to be compiled of executed
used to create model program
diagram that graphically depicts the steps in a program
sequential operations
instructions are executed in order
conditional operations
"question asking" operations-a control structure that asks a true/false question and then selects the next instruction based on the answer
iterative operations (loops)
a control structure that repeats the execution of a block of instructions
Integrated development program
single program that provides tools to write, execute and test a program
semantic errors
programming structure is valid, but logic is not. program will run but output will not be correct
piece of prewritten code that performs an operation;
group of statements within a program that perform a specific task
print function:
displays output on the screen
data given to a function; piece of data that is sent into a function (sometimes referred to as the actual parameter)
sequence of characters that is used as data
string literal
string that appears in actual code of a program
starts with the symbol # and extends to the end of the line. Ignored by Python interpreter; intended for a person reading the program's code
documentation string:
a 'triple quoted' string at the beginning of a program
name that represents a value stored in the computer memory
variable naming rules
cannot contain spaces
first character must be a letter or an underscore
after first character may use letters, digits, or underscores
case sensitive
assignment operation
the table that contains the association of a name with a value
data types
categorize value in memory
numeric literal
number written in a program
no decimal point-int
math operator
tool for performing calculation
values surrounding operator
exponent operator
** raises a number to a power
remainder operator
% performs division and returns the remainder
just enough memory to store letter or small number
8 bits
electrical component that can hold positive or negative charge, like on/off switch
represents two values
describes any device that stores data as binary numbers
modularized program
program wherein each task within the program is in its own function
top-down design
technique for breaking the algorithm into functions
function naming rules
cannot use key words
cannot contain spaces
first character must be a letter or underscore
all other characters must be a letter, number or underscore
case sensitive
function definition
specifies what a function does
function header
first line of function
keyword def and function name followed by parentheses and colon
set of statements that belong together as a group
main function
called when the program starts
local variable
variable that is assigned a value inside a function
the part of a program in which a variable may be accessed
global variable
created by assignment statement written outside all the functions
global constant
global name that references a value that cannot be changed
design structure
specific actions performed only if a condition exists
boolean expression
expression tested by if statement to determine if it is true or false
relational operator
determines whether a specific relationship exists between two values
dual alternative decision structure
two possible paths of execution
if-else statement
one is taken if the condition is true, and the other if the condition is false
if-elif-else statement
special version of a decision structure
logical operators
operators that can be used to create complex Boolean expressions
and: both must be true
or: one must be true
not: reverses the truth of its Boolean operand
Boolean variable
references one of two values, True of False
variable that signals when some condition exists in a program