Nt1330 Unit 1 Study Guide

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Question no: 1
Explain and differentiate between software, hardware and firmware:
Software is a set of programs that are executed in hardware. Moreover, software is a set of hardware instructions and their representations, which we call programs.
The American heritage dictionary defines software as: “Written or printed data such as programs, routines and symbolic languages, essential to the operation of computers.”
Software is anything that controls hardware. Software does not exist solely inside a computer. It is anything non-touchable, non- viable set of instructions coded in machine languages.
Operating system, Compiler, Interpreter, and application software are examples of software.
The term “Hardware” is used to refer to
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Question no: 2
Explain evolution of operating system.
The first computer used batch operating systems, in which computer ran batches of jobs without stop. Programs were punched into cards that were usually copied to tape for processing. When the computer finished one job, it would immediately start the other one on the tape.
In the 1960’s, time shared operating system began replacing batch up system. User interacted directly with the computer via a printing terminal.
Multi users shared the computer at the same time and it spent a fraction of a second on each one’s job before moving onto the next. A fast computer could work on many users job at the same time, while creating the illusions that they were receiving its full attention.
Printing terminals required that program that character or command line user interface, in which the user typed responses to prompts or typed commands. The interaction scrolled down a roll of

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