• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stratified Society
Grouping according to social strata or levels. American society is considered stratified on the basis of economic class and wealth.
Culture of Poverty
The view that people in the lower class of society form a separate culture with its own values and norms that are in conflict with conventional society; the culture is self-maintaining and ongoing.
Children and adults who lack the education and skills needed to be effectively in demand in modern society.
The lowest social stratum in any country, whose members lack the education and skills needed to function successfully in modern society.
Social Structure Theory
The view that disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crime.
Social Disorganization Theory
Branch of social structure theory that focuses on the breakdown of institutions such as the family, school, and employment in inner-city neighborhoods.
Strain Theory
Branch of social structure theory that sees crime as a function of the conflict between people's goals and the means available to obtain them.
The emotional turmoil and conflict caused when people believe they cannot achieve their goals and desires through legitimate means. Members of the lower class might feel strain because they are denied access to adequate educational opportunities and social support.
Cultural Deviance Theory
Branch of social structure theory that sees strain and social disorganization together resulting in a unique lower-class culture that conflicts with conventional social norm.
Groups that are loosely part of the dominant culture but maintain a unique set of values, beliefs, and traditions.
Cultural Transmission
The concept that conduct norms are passed down from one generation to the next so that they become stable within the boundaries of a culture. Cultural transmission guarantees that group lifestyle and behavior are stable and predictable.
Truly Disadvantaged
Wilson's term for the lowest level of the underclass; urban, inner-city, socially isolated people who occupy the bottom rung of the social ladder and are the victims of discrimination.
Transitional Neighborhoods
Areas undergoing a shift in population and structure, usually from middle-class residential to lower-class mixed use.
Concentration Effect
Working- and Middle-Class families flee inner-city poverty areas, resulting in the most disadvantaged population being consolidated in the most disorganized urban neighborhoods.
Rude and uncivil behavior; behavior that indicates little caring for the feelings of others.
Siege Mentality
Residents who become so suspicious of authority that they consider the outside world to be the enemy out to destroy the neighborhood.
A residential renewal stage in which obsolete housing is replaced and upgraded; areas undergoing such change seem to experience an increase in their crime rates.
Collective Efficacy
Social control exerted by cohesive communities, based on mutual trust, including intervention in the superstition of children and maintenance of public order.
Street Efficacy
A concept in which more cohesive communities with high levels of social control and social integration foster the ability for kids to use their wits to avoid violent confrontations and to feel safe in their own neighborhood. Adolescents with high levels of street efficacy are less likely to resort to violence themselves or to associate with delinquent peers.
Relative Deprivation
The condition that exists when people of wealth and poverty live in close proximity to one another. Some criminologists attribute crime rate differentials to relative deprivation.
According to Durkheim, an anomic society is one in which rules of behavior (values, customs, and norms) have broken down or become inoperative during periods of rapid social change or social crisis.
Mechanical Solidarity
A characteristic of a preindustrial society, which is held together by traditions, shared values, and unquestioned beliefs.
Organic Solidarity
Postindustrial social systems, which are highly developed and dependent upon the division of labor; people are connected by their interdependent needs for one another's services and production.
Theory of Anomie
A modified version of the concept of anomie developed by Merton to fit social, economic, and cultural conditions found in modern U.S. society. He found that two elements of culture interact to produce potentially anomic conditions, culturally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them.
Institutional Anomie Theory
The view that anomie invades U.S. culture because the drive for material wealth dominates and undermines social and community values.
American Dream
The goal of accumulating material goods and wealth through individual competition, the process of being socialized to pursue material success and to believe it is achievable.
General Strain Theory
According to Agnew, the view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to produce criminality.
Negative Affective States
According to Agnew, anger, depression, disappointment, fear and other adverse emotions that derive from strain.
Conduct Norms
Behaviors expected of social group members. If group norms conflict with those of the general culture, members of the group may find themselves described as outcasts or criminals.
Culture Conflict
According to Sellin, a condition brought about when the rules and norms of an individual's subculture affiliation conflict with the role demands of conventional society.
Focal Concerns
According to Miller, the value orientations of lower-class cultures, features include the needs for excitement, trouble, smartness, and personal autonomy.
Status Frustration
A form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youths because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by the larger society.
Middle-Class Measuring Rods
According to Cohen, the standards by which teachers and other representatives of state authority evaluate lower-class youths. Because they cannot live up to middle-class standards, lower-class youths are bound for failure, which gives rise to frustration and anger at conventional society.
Corner Boy
According to Cohen, a role in the lower-class culture in which young men remain in their birth neighborhood, acquire families and menial jobs, and adjust tot he demands of their environment.
College Boy
A disadvantaged youth who embraces the cultural and social values of the middle class and actively strives to be successful by those standards. This type of youth is embarking on an almost hopeless path, because he is ill-equipped academically, socially and linguistically to achieve the rewards of the middle-class life.
Delinquent Boy
A youth who adopts a set of norms and principles in direct opposition to middle-class values, engaging in short-run hedonism, living for today and letting tomorrow take car of itself.
Reaction Formation
According to Cohen, rejecting goals and standards that seem impossible to achieve. Because a boy cannot hope to get into college, for ex, he considers higher education a waste of time.
Differential Opportunity
The view that lower-class youths, whose legitimate opportunities are limited, join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals.