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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Conduct in violation of the criminal laws of state federal or local jurisdiction for which there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse
Individual rights
The rights guaranteed to all members of American society by the US Constitution
Theme of the book
Individual rights versus public order
Individual rights advocate
One who seeks to protect personal freedom within the process of criminal justice
Public order advocate
One who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threats to public safety the interest of society should take precedence over individual rights
Criminal justice system
The police, correctional agencies, and criminal courts
Due process
Right guaranteed by 5th 6th and 14th amendment
Criminal justice case proceedings be conducted with fairness and equality
a rule of Conduct generally found enacted in the form of a statue that prescribes or mandate certain forms of behavior
Statutory law
The written or confined in law the law on the books as enacted by a government body or agency having the power to make laws
Penal Code
The written organized and completed form of the criminal laws of jurisdiction
Case law
The body of judicial precedent historically built on legal reasoning and past interpretations of statutory laws that serve as a guide to decision making especially in the courts
Common law
The body of law originating from usage and custom rather than from written statues originally developed by English courts based on non-statutory customs and traditions and precedents that help guide you to show decision making
Rule of law
the maxim that an orderly society must be governed by established principles and known codes that are applied you uniformly and fairly to all of its members
Types of law
Criminal law
Statutory law
Civil law
Administrative law
Case law
General categories of crime
Inchoate offenses
Treason and Esplonage
reasonable force
A degree of force that is appropriate in a given situation and is not excessive
Double jeopardy
A common law and constitutional prohibition against a second trial for the same offense
Police agencies
Blank are the primary enforce law under federal local and state governments
10 to 20 percent
Require a law enforcement response
Community policing
A philosophy that promotes organizational strategies which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem solving techniques to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime social disorder and fear of crime
Anti terrorism
Increased social tension to maintain a close interactive dialogue between lawn forcement in the community
Fourth Amendment
The right of the people to be secure in their persons houses papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause
Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine
A legal principle that exclude from introduction at trial any evidence later developed as a result of an illegal search and seizures
Miranda warnings
1. You have the right to remain silent. 2. Anything you say can be used against you in a court of law.
3. You have the right to talk to a lawyer and to have a lawyer present while you are being questioned.
4. If you want a warrior before ordering questioning the cannot afford to hire a lawyer 1 will be appointed to represent you at no cost before any questioning.
5. If you answer questions now without a lawyer here you still have the right to stop answering questions at anytime.
Sneak and peek search
a search that occurs in the suspects absence and without his or her prior knowledge also known as a delayed notification search
A federal law enacted in response to terrorism attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 9 11
Rodney King incident
Please abused a man laughing having fun he had been speeding and refuse to stop 115 mph
search and seizures
is a procedure used in many civil law and common law legal systems whereby police or other authorities and their agents, who suspect that a crime has been committed, do a search of a person's property and confiscate any relevant evidence to the crime.
Police organization and structure
Two categories line operations and staff operations
Nature and purpose of law
Primary functions of the law is to maintain public order regulate human interaction enforce moral benefits define the economic environment of the society enhance predictability promote orderly social change sustain individual rights identify wrongdoers and redress wrongs and mandate punishment and retribution
what do laws do
laws maintain order in a society
laws regulate human interaction.
Laws enforce moral beliefs.
Laws defend the economic environment.
Laws enhanced predictability.
Law support the powerful.
Laws promote orderly social change.
Laws and individual rights.
Laws redress wrongs.
Laws identify wrongdoers.
Laws mandate punishment and retribution.
Brief history
Immigration civil war, prohibition, civil rights movement, crimes increased seventy's, drugs and increased crime eighty's, rodney king, 911, u_s_a patriot act, white collar crime,oshama bin laden, mass shootings and random violence
police interrogation
the information gathering activity of police officers that involve the direct questioning of suspects
scientific study of the causes and preventition of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders
Social justice
Embraces all aspects of civilized life and is the link to broader notions of fairness and right and wrong
Civil justice
Aspects of social justice and cannot be separated from it because the justice enacted in civil and criminal courts reflect basic American understandings of right and wrong
Criminal justice
an important mechanism in which justice can be achieved
Investigation, warrant, arrest and booking
The case process begins with the ______of a crime that has been discovered evidence gathered with ________ when _______provides the legal basis for police and _______ were picture and fingerprinting
First appearance
Magistrate tells suspects of the charges advise them of their rights and sides though
Preliminary hearing
To determine whether or not there is sufficient evidence to continue the criminal justice process
Information or indictment
Prosecutor may seek to continue the case by filing blank with the court while others choose blank and must be returned by a grand jury
Cases are resolved either by a criminal trial or the entry of a guilty plea
Once a person is convicted the judgments impose a what
The blank. Begins falling sentencing and involves a variety of sentences that can be imposed on a defendant
Offenders on probation do not go to prison but are required to follow various imposed restrictions
Evidence based practice
Refers to crime fighting shouted she is that has been scientifically tested and are based on social science research
Dicks instance within 1 Society of diverse groups that maintain unique cultural identities well forget Lee accepting and participating in the largest side is legal and political systems
social diversity
The condition of being different
Criminal law
Refers to the body of rules and regulations that define what behaviors are criminal and specifies punishments for offences of a public nature or 4 wrong committed against the state of our society
Substantive law
Describes what constitutes particular crime and specifies the appropriate punishment for each particular offense
Procedural law
Is the body of rules that determines the proceedings by which legal rights are enforced
Civil law
Forces on regulating relationships between and among people businesses and other organizations and government agencies non-criminal relationships
Administrative law
focus is on the regulations created by government to control businesses industries and individuals
Serious crimes such as murder and rape
Relatively minor crimes such as petty theft punishable by less than a year in prison
Minor violations such as spitting on the sidewalk in littering
Treason and espionage
most serious felonies
Corpus delicti
Body of the crime is the set of facts that shows that a crime has occurred
Criminal defenses
Alibi justification excuse and procedural defense
Inchoate offenses
Offense is not yet completed such as conspiracy
General features of a crime
Actus Reus
Men's Rea
necessary attendant circumstances