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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is Information System?

It processes data and transactions to provide user with information they need to:
Plan, Control and Operate an Organization
What does IT system do?
1. Collect transactions and data
2. Enter it into information system
3. Processing the data
4. Provide user with information
5. Control the process
What does Management Informationystem do?
a systems designed to provide past, present, future informaiton for planning, organization and controll the operation of an organization
Decision Support System
Computer based info. system that combines models and data to resolve nonstructured probelmes with extensive user involvement
Typses of IT system
1. Transaction processing system
2. Management reproting system
i. mgmt info system
ii. decision support system
iii. Expert system
iv. executive info system
Expert System
Computer system that apply reasoning methods to data in a relatively structured way to render advice/recommendaton much like human expert
Executive Information system
Computerized systems that are specifically designed to support executive work
System development life cycle (7)
1. Planning
2. Analysis
3. Design
4. Development
5. testing
6. Implementation
7. maintenance
Planning Phase
1. Define the system
2. Determine project scope
3. Develope project plan
Defination Phase
Identify and select the system to be developed based on stretegic goal of organization
Determine Project scope
high level requirements are defined
Development Phase
Project plan defines activities to be performed, individual and resources to be used, establishes project milestone
Analysis Phase
Need assesment
Gap assesment
Gap priorties established
Design Phase
Technical blue print
Development Phase
Transformed to actual system
Types of testing phase
1. unit testing - unit/piece of code testing
2. System testing- integration of units
3. Integreation testing - can seperate system work together
4. user acceptance - system meets business requirements
Types of Implementation
1. Parallel Implementation
2. Plunge Implementation
3. Pilot Implementation
4. Phase Implementation
Maintenance Phase
1. Monitories and supporting new system
2. Ongoing training
3. Help desk resource
4. System of making authorized and tested changes
where is Application and Program Data saved?
RAM - Random Access memory (part of primary memory)
What are the 3 funcion of CPU
1. Fetch instruciton and data
2. Decode instruction
3. Carry out instruction
What does control unit do?
1. Inteprets program instruction
2. Coding, input, output and storage device
Types of Softwares
1. System Software
a. Operating system
b. utitlity program
c. Communication software
2. Application software
a. word/graphic
b. accounting softwared (lowend, highend, ERP)
Advantages of ERP
1. Integration of various portion of the Informaton system
2. Direct ecommerce with suppliers customers
3. Increased responsiveneess to information request to decision making
Disadvantages of ERP
1. Complexity
2. Cost
3. Integration with suppliers and customers may be difficult
Produces a machine language object program form a source program language
Batch processing
Transactions flow through the system in groups of like data.
Leaves easy to follow trail
Online real-time processing
AKA direct access processing
Transactions are process i order they occured
Types of online realtime processing
OLTP - Online transaction processing

OLAP - Online analystica processing (allow user to query the system)
Data mining
Using sophisticated techniques from statistical, artificial intellegence and computer graphics to explain, confirm and explore relationship between data
Artificial Intellegence
1. Computer system designed to help human make decision

2. sesigned to model aspect of human thought on computed

3. deals with decision mode using structured approaches
Expert System
One from of AI
Guides decision process within a well defined area
allows decision comprable to an expert
expert knowledget is modelded into a mathemetical system
Structured query language
Most common language used for creating, query relational database
Types of SQL
Data Defination (DDL)

Data Manipulation (DML)

Data Control (DCL)
altering, deleting tables
establishing various constrains
defines database
Commands used to maintain and query database
Updating, intensify, modifying and query
joining tables
Data Controlling language:
Determines which users have various privileges
abel to read and write to various portion of the database
Database structure
1. hierarchical
2. Networked
3. Relational
4. Object oriented
5. Object - relational
6. distributed
Database Control
User department
access control
Restricting privileges
logical views
Types of backup recovery
Backup database and logs of transactions
Database replication
Backup facility
Advantages of Database system
1. Data independence
2. minimal data redundancy
3. Data sharing
4. Reduce program maintenance
5. Commercial application can be modified
Disadvantages of database system
1. Need a database expert
2. Installation is costly
3. Conversion from legacy file is costly
4. Comprehensive back and recovery are necessary
What is a Network
Is a interconnected computers and terminals
Classificatin of network (geographical)
Lcoal area network
Metro area network
Wide area network
Internet languages
1. Hypertext transfer Protocol (HTTP). Used to transfer documetns among diff. types of computers and networks

2. Uniform Resource Locator (URL): stanard for finding a document by typing in an address
A method of protecting an organization's computers and computer informaiton from outsiders.
Consists of security algorithms, router communication protocals that prevent outsiders from tapping into organization's database and email
Connects two networks
determines best way for data packets to move forward
Divides LAN into two segments forwarding traffic accross network boundary
Devices that channel incoming data from any of multiple input ports to the specific output port that will take data toward its intended destination
Combination of harward and software that links seperates types of network
Bulletin Board
Acts as centralized information source and massage swiching system for users with particular interest
Privately owned within same building
General controls are week, depends on useres
LAN software generally does not provide security features available in large scale environment
Control over microcomputes
Security - Secure hard drive, secure access to computer

Verification - Independent varificaiton of applications being processed

Personnel - Who can purchase hardware, software, piracy, virus etc
Controlling software priacy
1. Establishing corporate software policy

2. Maintain a log of software purchase

3. Audit computes for software installed
Risks assoicates with Ecommerce system
1. Security
2. Availability
3. Processign integrity
4. Online privacy
5. Confidentiality
Benefits of EDI
1. Quick respone and access to information
2. Cost efficiency
3. Reduce paperwork
4. Accurate, reduce error, error correction cost
5. better communication and customer serivce
6. Necesasry to remain competitive
Risks related to EDI ((Electronic data interchange)
Detecting control maybe too late

log kept for a short peirod of time, so control needs to be tested timely
Exposured of EDI
1. total dependece on computer system
2. possible loss of confidentiality
3. unauthorized transactions
4. Concentration of control among few people
5. data processing, application, communication error
6. Potential legal liabitity
7. Reliance on 3rd party
8. Loss of audit trail
9. reliance on trading partners system
Telecommunication controls needed
1. System integrity @ remote sites
2. Data entry
3. Central computer security
4. Dial in security
5. Transmission accurancy and completeness
6. Physical security over telecom. facility
COBIT Criteria
1. Effectiveness (relevent)
2. Efficiency
3. Confidentiality
4. Integrity
5. Availability
6. Reliability
7. Compliance
Principles of reliable system
1. Security
2. Availability
3. Processing integrity
4. Confidentiality
5. Confidentiality
Risk on each principle of a reliable system
Physical Risk - Weather, ware, bad employes

Logical Acces- malicious damage or alteration of files, unathorized access, computer fraud
Availability Risk
Interruption of buiness operation

loss of data
Processing integrity risk
Invalid, incomplete, inaccurate:
input data
data processing
updating master file
creating of output
Online Privacy Risk
Disclosure of customer information
Credit card #
Credit rating
Medical condition
Sytem development life cycle
1. software concept
2. requirement analysis
3. architetural design
4. Coding and debugging
5. testing
Input Validation control
1. preprinted form
2. check digit
3. control, batch, proof total
d. hash total
5. record count
6. limit total
7. menu driven input
8. field check
9. validity check
10. missing data chedk
11. field size check
12. logic check
13. redundant data check\
14. close loop varificatoin
Parity Check
a special bit is added to each character that can deted if the harware losses a bit during internal movement
Check Digit
Extra digit added to a id to check against certain types of data transmission error
Hash total
a control total that is meaningless for financial purpose. i.e. employee ssn #
Disaster Recover plan should include:
Insurance for defer cost
Backup approches
Check point
Backup facility