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58 Cards in this Set

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What is the function of the nervous system?
Regulate body (with endocrine system)
Maintain health and homeostasis
Responsible for behavior, memory, and movement
How is the nervous system divided
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
What makes up the Central Nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
What makes up the Peripheral Nervous System
cranial and spinal nerves that contain sensory and motor fibers
connects CNS to all muscles, glands and sensory receptors
Structural classification of neurons
Multipolar
Bipolar
Unipolar
Multipolar Neurons
several dendrites and one axon (Most neurons of the brain and spinal cord)
Bipolar neurons
one main dendrite and one axon (retina of the eye, inner ear, olfactory center)
Unipolar
cell body fused to both axon and dendrite (sensory)
Two types of CNS neurons
Purkinje cells
Pyramidal cells
Where are purkinje cells located?
cerebellum
Where are pyramidal cells located?
cerebral cortex
What is the main function of myelin?
Increases the speed of response
What is saltatory conduction?
A leap frog action of the action potential that speeds up transmission. Signal jumps between Nodes of Ranvier
What is resting potential?
An ionic imbalance across a membrane because of variances in concentration of ions inside and outside of the membrane
Why does size matter with axon fibers?
Larger, myelinated fibers conduct impulses faster due to size and saltatory strength.
Propogation speed is NOT related to signal strength
Neurotransmitters found in the CNS
acetylcholine, glutamate, aspartate, gamma, aminobutyric acid, glycine, norepinepherine, epinepherine, and dopamine
Can axon damage be repaired?
PNS can repair damaged dendrites or axons
CNS no repairs are possible
How is PNS plasticity maintained?
Sprouting new dendrites
Synthesis of new proteins
Changes in synaptic contacts with other neurons
Facts about PNS repair
If Schwann cells are present and cell body remains, PNS repair is possible
By 3-5 days, Wallerian degeneration occurs, retrograde degeneration to one node
Regeneration occurs within several months
Axonal buds grow down the tube to reconnect at a rate of 1.5 mm per day
Layers of spinal meninges
Dura Mater (Superficial)
Arachnoid Mater (Deep to Dura Mater)
Pia Mater (Deep to Arachnoid Mater)
What is CSF?
A clear fluid that absorbs shock and protects the brain and spinal cord. It also helps transport nutrients and waste to and from the blood and nervous tissue
Where is CSF located?
Circulates through cavities in the brain (ventricles) and spinal cord (central canal) and also in subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid and pia mater of the cranial meninges)
What structure produces CSF?
Choroid Plexuses, networks of capillaries in the wall of ventricles. Plasma is drawn from the choroid plexuses through ependymal cells into the ventricles to produce CSF
Which spinal cord root transmits sensory impulses?
Posterior (dorsal)
Which spinal cord root transmits motor impulses?
Anterior (ventral)
Define CNS and features
Central Nervous System consists of brain and spinal cord. Receives sensory input from PNS and responds with motor transmission through PNS
Define PNS and features
Peripheral Nervous Systems consists of cranial and spinal nerves that consist of sensory and motor fibers. It connects the CNS to the muscles, glands, and all sensory receptors. Sensory information is delivered to CNS and motor information transmitted from CNS.
Subdivisions of the PNS
Subdivisions of PNS include Somatic (Voluntary) Nervous System, Autonomic (Involuntary) Nervous System, Enteric Nervous System
What are the four major parts of the brain?
Brain stem, Cerebellum, Cerebrum, Diencephalon
What are the parts of a reflex arc?
Sensory Receptor
Sensory Neuron
Integrating Center
Motor Neuron
Effector
RReflex Arc -- Sensory Receptor
Responds to a stimulus by producing a generator or receptor potential
Reflex Arc -- Sensory Neuron
Axon conducts impulses from receptor to integrating center
Reflex Arc -- Integrating Center
one or more regions within the CNS that relay impulses from sensory to motor neurons
Reflex Arc -- Motor Neuron
axon conducts impulses from integrating center to effector
Reflex Arc -- Effector
muscle or gland that responds to motor nerve impulses
Monoplegia
Paralysis of a single limb
Diplegia
paralysis affecting symmetrical body parts
Paraplegia
paralysis affecting the legs
Hemiplegia
weakness or paralysis of entire left or right side of the body
Quadriplegia
also known as tetraplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury to a human that results in the partial or total loss of use of all their limbs and torso
A chronic progressive cognitive disorder leading to dementia
Alzheimer's Disease
on-progressing but changing motor impairments of brain due to lesions
Cerebral Palsy
Persistent sadness, hopelessness
Depression
Disease marked by recurrent seizures
Epilepsy
Involves destruction of myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord
Multiple Sclerosis
Loss of sensation or purposeful movement
Spinal Paralysis
Sudden loss of neurological function due to vascular injury
Stroke
Part of the ANS that speeds things up
Sympathetic
Part of the ANS that slows things down
Parasympathetic
What is the cauda equina
A bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve roots which originate in the conus medullaris of the spinal cord, located at the end of the spinal cord -- resembles a horse's tail
Sensory tracts that deliver information to the brain
Ascending tracts
Motor tracts that deliver information to the periphery
Descending tracts
Neuron that delivers sensations to the CNS. The cell body is in the dorsal or cranial root ganglion.
First-order neurons
An interneuron with the cell body in the spinal cord or brain
Second-order neuron
Transmits information from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex
Third-order neuron
Which tract transmits pain and temperature sensations to the thalamus and then to the cerebrum
Spinothalamic tract
What is the function of a muscle spindle?
Stretch reflex - feedback mechanism that detects muscle length and any changes to muscle length by increasing the number of electrical signals it generates as its sensory nerve endings are stimulated
How does the Golgi Tendon Organ work?
A feedback mechanism to control muscle tension by causing muscle relaxation before the tendon tension becomes high enough to cause damage. Ipsilateral