Structure Involved In Disease Essay

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SECTION 2
Structure involved in disease. According to Martini et al. (2015) nervous system divided into two division which is the Central Nervous System(CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System(PNS). CNS consist of the brain and spinal cord while PNS include all the neural tissue outside the CNS. Neuron are the nerve cells which receive the stimulus from each part of the body and send it to the CNS. A neuron consist of body cell, dendrites, axon,myelin sheath and telodendrites. Normal neuron requires all the structure works together forming a good nervous system. The damages of any
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A leading theory is MS is an auto-immune diseases. Auto-immune diseases is an disorder in which the immune system fights the body's own cells causing inflammation and organ damage. In MS case, immune system attacks the healthy tissue in the nervous system.

Multiple sclerosis happen when T cell become activated. They enter CNS through blood vessels. T cells attacks myelin and produce damaging inflammation. Once in CNS, these T cell injured myelin and secrete chemicals which is cytokines to form scar tissues (sclerosis) that damage nerve fibers (axon) and recruit more damaging immune cells to the site of inflammation.When a part of myelin sheath is damaged, myelin sheath cannot act as insulator properly, so nerve impulse cannot be sent efficiently.

In vertebrates, the axons of many neurons are surrounded by a myelin sheath that is made of Schwann cells. The function of myelin sheath are its speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses along the axon and acts as an electrical insulator and prevent movement of ions such as sodium ion and pottasium ion through it. When the myelin sheath were to be broken or damaged in any way, the signals trying to make their way through that neuron would become weakened or even cut off altogether. (Tengku Norbaya, Lecture Notes Biology Foundation,

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